Istanbul Strait Road Tube Crossing Project will beautify Istanbul: With its original name, the "Istanbul Strait Road Tube Crossing Project", as it is known by everyone, works on the Eurasia Tunnel continue at full speed. Engineering candidates to enter the world of literature features project management structure as well as with paints a picture far beyond the standard is used in Turkey. Eurasia Tunnel Management Construction and Investment Inc.
The Eurasia Tunnel Project starts from Kazlıçeşme, follows the coastal road and enters a kind of passage tunnel in Çattıkapı, then passes through a two-storey bored tunnel and connects to the D100 (E-5) highway at Eyüp Aksoy Junction on the Anatolian side at Göztepe Junction. ends. And this journey, which normally takes 100 minutes, ends in 15 minutes with the tunnel. With the Eurasia tunnel, the exhaust emission mixed into the air of Istanbul will decrease, and people will be able to go to work, schools or sightseeing, enjoying the most precious treasure of the modern age, using their time economically. And within the world of work in 2008 on this very large project was launched by Turkey for hosting the first to win the tender. Build-Operate-Transfer model of the projects carried out by the sponsors of Turkey's most established companies in the Building Center and the largest in South Korea's SK & C. These two companies merged to form ATAŞ and ATAŞ; He continues his studies as responsible for completing and operating the project.
It has a quite different administrative structure than projects such as the Eurasia Tunnel, 3rd Bridge or 3rd Airport. ATAŞ Deputy General Manager Mustafa Tanrıverdi gave detailed information about this very different project, which also received awards from the world financial circles, and raised the standards of our country to the next level. The project is appreciated not only for this structure but also for its top-level principles that protect the environment and social structure. Goddess; He says that if even a bat's nest is to be damaged within the construction sites, they cannot continue on their way without finding a new home for the bat. It is aimed that the works carried out with such meticulousness and care will be completed in 2016 and with the tunnel opened, it is aimed to take a sigh of relief through a transportation worthy of the magnificent beauty of Istanbul.
The Eurasia Tunnel is being implemented with a very complicated management structure. Can you tell us about this structure?
The structure of the project is very different from the other contracting services in Turkey. Others are usually an employer and a contractor. Our project is much more complicated. The central and local authorities decide to carry out such a project after detailed survey and feasibility studies, as well as many other transport projects, in order to contribute to the traffic in Istanbul. After all the necessary legal and bureaucratic works are completed within the framework of national legislation, the government is going to the tender and saying, "This project is build-operate-transfer, I don't spend money on the state budget." He wants the finance to provide. The financiers of other mega projects currently under construction in our country are native. What makes the Eurasian Tunnel more critical, more challenging, and better quality is that funding is completely outsourced. The project's environmental, social, financial and technical standards are expected to be very high when financed by foreign capital. Otherwise, you cannot find external loans. Currently we have our responsibility for environmental and social issues, the Equator Principles, IFC, EBRD and EIB Standards and fulfill their standards much higher than Turkey in the framework of EU Directives.
The Eurasia Tunnel is a social engineering work with its administrative structure as well as its groundbreaking features in the world engineering literature.
Yapı Merkezi and the South Korean SK E&C company jointly established a joint stock company for the general management of the Project. This company, ATAŞ, is responsible to the Administration and the Lenders. In addition, construction works are carried out by a separate joint venture established by the same partners. ATAŞ was established for this project and is responsible for both the construction and operation of the project. There is also a guarantor on one side. The Treasury project guarantor of the Republic of Turkey. The Guarantor comes into play if a situation that we currently see as extreme, that is, which we do not see as unlikely, that will hinder the course of the business and that cannot be prevented, comes into play.
The structure is schematically very complicated. At the top is the Administration, the Ministry of Transport, Maritime Affairs and Communications, the General Directorate of Infrastructure Investments, creditors and the Undersecretariat of Treasury. Again at this level, there are separate companies that are technical advisors of the Administration and lenders. Below them is the Company in Charge, namely ATAŞ. There is a contractor firm working under ATAŞ supervision and also a separate firm to operate. Under the contractor, there are highly skilled suppliers, service providers and subcontractors, especially world giant design companies. There is an independent design approval firm. Although they are not a party to the convention, there are Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality and its affiliates, District Municipalities, Cultural and Natural Heritage Conservation Boards and many public and private sector institutions and organizations that we need to be in intense contact and coordination with. While the implementation of the project is carried out within the scope of the Implementation Agreement between the Administration and us; Financing agreements and affiliated agreements with lenders and the coordination that should be provided with all other public institutions and organizations, especially IMM, make the management of the project quite difficult.
Under the administration of the Italian and Turkish joint venture, there is a consultant company. The banks have technical consultants. The Eurasia Tunnel Project has a very different structure with many technical and non-technical features that we cannot count. One of our most important tasks as ATAŞ is to manage and coordinate this complicated structure.
The Eurasia Tunnel has many firsts within it. One of them is the first time the private sector to operate the road crossing in Turkey. How are your work on this progress? The Eurasia Tunnel is a build-operate-transfer project. After the tunnel is completed, 25 will have its operation for years. We have already assigned the operating company. When the project is completed after the construction is completed, an important French company operating many tunnels and roads in the world will come here and manage the business on our behalf. We have already assigned it, because it is informed about the whole course of work, and if it already foresees a problem that may arise in the enterprise, it warns; we are trying to make design and manufacturing by taking their opinions into consideration. There are many design and engineering companies within the project. Most of them worldwide. There is also an independent design approval firm, which examines and approves what the designers do independently. In engineering structures, priority is function and economy; however, we also give importance to aesthetics. In particular, we are trying to make visible structures compatible with both aesthetics and the environment and people.
What vehicles will pass through the tunnel and how will the tolls be?
The tunnel will have two floors, most vehicles with 2.75 height. This corresponds to the classical minibus in Turkey. Midibus, truck, bus will not be allowed. Motorcycles are also forbidden for safety reasons. Another critical point; ventilation. Approximately 5 kilometers between the input and output portals will be a space detached from the atmosphere. Therefore, it is necessary to discharge the exhaust gases inside. There will be two ventilation shafts. Air will be thrown out with the help of fans. As for security issues; fire detection, extinguishing system, sensor system detecting any kind of abnormal motion. In the tunnels 200 meters have an upper tunnel through the lower tunnel and vice versa safety transitions, and from the bottom to the top, it is easy and safe to switch to any problem instantly. In addition, every 600 meter has safety pockets for vehicle failure situations.
When the tunnel is opened, the toll will be calculated as 4 dollar plus VAT. Dollar, the current exchange rate will be converted to TL. For today's money, it is worth 10 TL. For vans this price will be applied in 1,5 solids. At first glance, it seems to be a high amount of current tolls, but considering fuel and time savings, it will be more economical for Istanbulites using the tunnel route.
How were foreign investors interested in the project?
We got the Eurasia Tunnel tender in 2008. The financing process was completed in 2012. At first, we thought of a South Korean financing model. However, the current conjuncture made it necessary to open the financing spectrum. The rate of financing from Europe has increased. We went to the banks in Europe; We explained our project. We signed a loan agreement of 10 million dollars with 960 creditor institutions including the European Investment Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and Korea Exim Bank. We made an equity commitment of approximately 285 million dollars. There are also Turkish banks, but they contribute more indirectly. Everything gets very difficult when European banks are involved. The feasibility, financial management, technical standards and especially the environmental and social impacts of the business are very high. In fact, the Project was examined by the relevant Ministry within the framework of local legislation and it was decided that it was outside the scope of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). But, in particular, since the constitutions of multinational financial institutions are “people” oriented, they pay particular attention to environmental and social issues. They do not tolerate mistakes, damages to nature and people in these matters. In addition, the investor companies Yapı Merkezi and SK E&C also have a high motivation for the implementation of these standards.
We can say that the eye of the world is above this project. In parallel, the project won many awards. What are these awards?
We are happy to appreciate the complex and high quality structure that defies the challenging process and the engineering and management structure of the project. 2012 Euromoney-Europe's Best Project Finance Agreement, EMEA Finance-Best Public Private Partnership, Infrastructure Journal-The Most Innovative Transportation Project, Thomson Reuters PFI-Best Infrastructure Project Financing Agreement; the awards won by the project.
The Eurasia Tunnel is a very special project with its environmental and social sensitivity. The fact that it is located in the Historic Peninsula further highlights the sensitivity of the project on these issues. What are the precautions you take in order not to harm the historical texture and social life?
Our project is essentially outside the scope of the EIA. However, we have carried out an Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) study under the umbrella of international criteria and Equator Principles, and we manage the project by adhering to this study, taking into account the social aspect of the business. Let me give an example to explain our sensitivity: We determine the trees that may be affected within the scope of the project one by one. While moving the trees that must be removed to the nearest point, we are responsible for finding another home for bats if there are bats nesting in those trees. We carry out such a detailed and high standard work.
There are criticism that you bring traffic to the Historic Peninsula. Before making this criticism, the current situation should be investigated and the differences before and after the project should be considered. The most important and important part of the Historic Peninsula is the eastern part. This project significantly reduces traffic there. Because before, for example, Kumkapı by the way to the Üsküdar side of the Topkapı Palace and Eminönü passing through the Bosphorus bridge was reaching. Now these roads will be bypassed. In other words, the Eurasia Tunnel will reduce traffic in the eastern part, which is the most important part of the historical peninsula; it will also contribute to the reduction of emissions due to the distance and time savings.
When criticizing, the subject should be considered in its entirety. Priority is always human. The aim is to maximize the contribution to the happiness of people. Possible negative impacts to be made during this process should be minimized and even if possible removed completely.
Before you start the project, you will get the approval of the public, you can study the idea of the idea. How did this practice that we come across in Turkey too, how it was implemented?
Before the project came into force, as a responsible corporate stakeholder, we heard the voice of the public before the construction started, with the knowledge and approval of the Administration. We have followed a transparent communication policy with all stakeholders. We contacted 105 corporate stakeholder, organized an 6 information seminar. We went to all the muhtars in the region, opened project promotion offices and told people about our project. We've seen a lot of support. The general public is supporting the project. Of course, very slender by touching the project has also found errors. All of these criticisms were taken into consideration and reduced to a minimum, taking into account the technical and economic feasibility of the human dimension. Naturally, they create additional costs; But, as I always underline, since human beings are priorities, we also fulfill them within the framework of our social responsibilities. We maintain uninterrupted communication with all individual and corporate stakeholders. We share all of our environmental and social reports in a transparent manner via the website. For those who do not have internet access, we have these documents ready in the reading rooms.
Will the Eurasian Tunnel have a negative impact on air quality in places where it will pass? What kind of work do you do to prevent this?
We are discharging the air in the tunnel from two ventilation shafts, one of which is located on one of the Asian sides of the Anatolian side. The situation on the Anatolian side is very comfortable due to the position of the ventilation shaft. On the European side, we designed the ventilation shaft as an 5 meter which does not affect the historical silhouette of Istanbul. We used powerful vertical fans in order not to affect the air quality in this region. The people living in this region were concerned about the low shaft. However, all the designs we made were controlled by air projection with air quality modeling studies. There's nothing to worry about. We will share our work with our stakeholders and resolve their concerns about the works that we have developed in line with the demands of the public. They will also get a comfortable “breath Onlar. Especially, on the western side of the Historic Peninsula, it is said that there will be more noise due to the traffic that will occur due to demand and the pollution will increase due to the increase in traffic. As I said, we take measures for all these concerns. And in these matters, we are in constant contact with UNESCO, Site Management Presidency, relevant District Municipalities and Cultural and Natural Heritage Preservation Board. We do the project for the people of Istanbul. Our aim is to improve the quality of life of the people of Istanbul. We are proceeding within the framework of this basic principle.
The air quality of the project route will be monitored on a daily basis during the operation period. Reports will be made if there is a course above the figures. Current calculations show that we remain within the standard limits for noise and pollution. However, daily inspections will be carried out during the project operation phase.
No housing structure is affected by the project. The number of affected workplaces is very low for such a project. We had more interaction with some public spaces. We solve all of them without any problem.
The project uses a very specific CPC. Can you tell us about the technical specifications of the machine?
The CPC used in the project was designed by Herrenknecht. The 13,7 meter is a slurry mixshield type. The machine is designed to withstand the pressure of the 106 bar, as the machine will pass through the ground below the bottom of the Bosphorus, and about 11 meters below sea level. It is the only example in the world with this design feature. It is also equipped with pressure cells which allow divers to operate for possible interventions during machine design and for changing cutter teeth at different periods. The main armor part of the machine is the 13,5 meter length, which combines the pre-assembled segment components and the tunnel body, and the 4 meter with all the power and other interfaces connected to the rear, together with the 120 support unit, has a total length of 3.400 meters. The machine's total weight is around 450 tone, and the most heavy part that is connected at one time is the cutting head with the XNUMX tone.
We started to do geotechnical studies under the sea before starting the project. We have worked with the Dutch company Fugro, which is the most competent company in the world. The company drilled with two vessels with different features. Submarine geology and geotechnical properties were determined. CPC was made according to this geology. CPCs are already tailored for each project. We have designed and constructed our project to be very resistant against earthquakes. In two critical points, earthquake insulators are designed and manufactured in Japan. These are called seismic seals. After a short time, the installation of the first seismic gasket will begin. Therefore, when there is an earthquake, our tunnel will have a flexible structure that will prevent breakage, absorb and absorb energy. The tunnel will be resistant to the earthquake on the Richter scale.
We mentioned it in place, but if we gather under a question; Which technologies will take place in the Eurasia Tunnel?
Leaving aside the construction practices, during the operation phase, the Eurasia Tunnel will be equipped with the latest technology within the scope of electromechanical works. In order to monitor tunnel and passenger safety, IP based high resolution camera, announcement and driver information systems, fiber optic fire detection, maintenance teams, tunnel radio and radio systems that emergency teams such as police, fire brigade and ambulance can use, axial and jet for tracking air quality in tunnel Tunnel ventilation system consisting of fans, intelligent transportation systems within the scope of traffic safety and automatic event detection systems to detect the undesirable situations in the tunnel will be installed and used.
At the toll booths on both sides of the tunnel entrance portals, the Automatic Passage System and the Fast Pass System will be installed on the same strip.
How much daily transit do you anticipate when the tunnel goes into service?
Traffic has been very important in the project from the very beginning. In addition to the sponsors, lenders also want to predict the traffic that may occur while calculating the payback power of this investment. Very detailed studies have been done for this. The reports we had prepared were also examined by the technical consultants of the lenders. After all of these works were completed, the financing model of the project was created and the project is currently proceeding within the framework of this model.
We made a prediction and said: 120 thousand car passes through the tunnel. Of course, the first two years may be slightly below this figure, but as people get used to it, this is the figure we predicted. Considering the situation of Istanbul and especially the bridge traffic, we expect this transition to be very fast. Administration is setting a guarantee for this. 25 million vehicles per year (corresponds to the average 68 thousand vehicles per day) under the difference if the commitment to pay the difference. However, this figure is unlikely to fall below the current projections.
What will the Eurasia Tunnel bring to Istanbul?
Tünel will serve as the shortest and fastest transportation artery of Istanbul traffic between the Historic Peninsula and the Anatolian Side. Especially in the eastern part of the coastal road, followed by the Galata and Unkapanı Bridges region, on the Anatolian side, it will mainly relieve the traffic in the Bosphorus Bridge region. Yenikapı-Göztepe 15 will be taken in minutes. The short travel time will lead to a reduction in the exhaust emissions in Istanbul's atmosphere, comfort for passengers using the tunnel, time savings and economy.