Abdülmecid Efendi was born on May 29, 1868, Beşiktaş, Istanbul – died on August 23, 1944, Paris, the last Islamic caliph from the Ottoman Dynasty, painter, musician.
He is the only painter member of the Ottoman Dynasty and was among the Turkish painters of his time. Abdülmecid, who became the heir to the Ottoman throne upon the accession of his uncle's son, Mehmed Vahdettin, to the throne on July 4, 1918; He carried this title until the sultanate was abolished on 1 November 1922. He was elected caliph by the Turkish Grand National Assembly on 19 November 1922. He held the title of caliph until March 431, 3, when the law numbered 1924, which officially ended the Ottoman Caliphate, was passed. It went down in history as the Last Ottoman Caliph. He was born in Istanbul on May 29, 1868, as the middle son of Sultan Abdulaziz. His mother is Hayranıdil Kadınefendi.
After his father was deposed in 1876, Sultan II. Under the supervision of Abdülhamid, he received a strict education in Şehzedeğan School in Yıldız Palace. Curious about history and literature, prone to language learning. He learned Arabic, Persian, French and German. Established a relationship with Sanayi-i Nefise teachers; Osman Hamdi Bey took painting lessons from Salvatore Valeri. He made friends with Fausto Zonaro and proceeded on his way in painting.
He was far behind during the throne. He lived in the mansion in Icadiye, busy with art. In accordance with the palace traditions of the time, alafranga was interested in life. Ömer Faruk Efendi, the son from Şahsuvar Başkadıefendi, and his daughter Dürrüşehvar Sultan from Mehista, the woman, was born.
Living outside the mansion with his family, II. It continued until the declaration of the Constitutional Monarchy. After the announcement of the new regime, it supported many civil and social institutions established in the country. He was the chief supporter of the Armenian Women's Union and the honorary president of the Crescent-Ahmer Society.
He was very interested in painting and music arts. He was among the leading names in Turkish painting. He served as the honorary chairman of the Ottoman Artists Society, founded in 1909. One of the works of Abdülmecid Efendi, known to send his paintings to various exhibitions at home and abroad, was exhibited at the big annual exhibition in Paris; His paintings Haremde Beethoven, Haremde Goethe, Yavuz Sultan Selim were exhibited in 1917 at the Turkish painters exhibition in Vienna. He was particularly successful in portrait. One of the most important portraits is the portrait of the famous poet of his time, Abdulhak Hamit Tarhan. Portraits of his daughter Dürrüşehvar Sultan and his son Ömer Faruk Efendi are among his most known works. The Ottoman Artists' Society's attempts to publish newspapers, Galatasaray exhibitions, the establishment of Şişli Workshop, the Vienna exhibition and the scholarship of Avni Lifij in Paris are among the artistic events supported by him.
Abdülmecid, who had great interest in music as well as painting, took his first music lessons from Feleksu Kalfa and worked with Hungarian pianist Géza de Hegyei and violin virtuoso Carl Berger. Hegyei, a student of famous composer Franz Liszt, made his own Liszt painting; On the other hand, Carl Berger is known to gift Elegie, his own composition. Abdülmecid, who plays violin, piano, cello and harpsichord, is hiding in room number 1911 in Dolmabahçe Palace. He is known to have many compositions but few of his works have been reached.
After the 31 March Incident, II. Abdulhamid was deposed; the crown prince Reşat Efendi was taken to the throne; The elder brother of Prince Abdülmecid Efendi, Yusuf Izzeddin Efendi, became the heir. After Yusuf Izzeddin's suicide in 1916, Vahdettin, one of the sons of Sultan Abdulmecid, was appointed as heir. In 1918, after the death of Mehmed Reşat and Vahdettin's throne, Şehzade Abdülmecid Efendi was declared the heir.
When he was occupied by Istanbul at the end of the First World War, the Crown Prince Abdülmecid Efendi sent favors criticizing the government of Damat Ferit Pasha. After the establishment of Ali Rıza Pasha instead of the government of Damat Ferit, he changed his opposition attitude towards Vahdettin and married his son Şehzade Ömer Faruk Efendi with the young daughter of his uncle Sultan Vahdeddin's daughter Sabiha Sultan.
The Kuvâ-yi Milliye movement, which was organized in Anatolia to save the country from occupations, did not respond positively when they invited him to Ankara in July 1920 through one of his former aides Yumni Bey. His contact with Ankara was taken from the crown office in Çamlıca when he was informed by Sultan Mehmet Vahdettin, and was kept under detention for 38 days in his private apartment in Dolmabahçe.
When Mustafa Kemal, the leader of the liberation movement, wrote another letter in February 1921 and offered him a sultanate, Abdulmecid once again gave a 'no' answer. Instead, he sent his son Ömer Faruk to Ankara, but Mustafa Kemal refused Ömer Faruk and sent it back. Abdülmecid Efendi made an attempt to move to Anatolia at the end of 1921 through Fevzi Pasha. The issue was discussed in parliament; not found suitable.
After the conflict, which started with the invitations of both Ankara and Istanbul governments to the peace conference to be held after the Independence War ended with victory, the Turkish Grand National Assembly abolished the law with the law adopted on 1 November 1922. After the reign of Sultanate, Abdulmecid's crown title disappeared.
From the reign of hand and "betrayal-i vataniyy to" Vahidettin decided to be charged with the 16-17 November 1922 night HMS Malaya from British Turkey Upon leaving Turkey with armored ruled that Parliament vacated the Caliphate authority. The Assembly elected for the caliphate on 18 November 19 after the discussions on 1922 November. Abdülmecit Efendi was chosen as the caliph with the votes of 162 of 148 mebuses who participated in the election. Nine MPs abstained during the vote; II. Five votes were given to Selim and Abdürrahim Efendi, one of the princes of Abdulhamid.
A delegation of 15 people, elected by a lot, under the presidency of Müfid Efendi, was sent to Istanbul to notify the decision of the Turkish Grand National Assembly to Abdülmecit Efendi. On November 24, 1922, a allegiance ceremony took place in the Cardigan Sheriff's Office in Topkapi Palace. It was the first time that Turkish was prayed instead of Arabic. In the Fatih Mosque, which was visited for Friday prayers, Turkish sermon was read for the first time by Müfid Efendi in the name of the new caliph. The sermon, which is about the hadith that says “We have returned from the small jihad to the big one”, was interpreted as the “big jihad” war against ignorance. He thanked the elected parliament by publishing a declaration to the new caliph Islamic world.
The Indian Caliphate Conference, which was held on 21-27 December 1922, approved and accepted the caliphate of Abdulmecid. When the Republic was declared on 29 October 1923, the situation of caliphate and caliph was brought to the agenda. The demand of the caliph to increase his allowance and to ask for permission to accept foreign political guests caused tension between the Turkish government and the caliph. During the War Games held in Izmir on 5-20 February 1924, the elders of the state also discussed the issue of caliphate.
In the last session of the budget talks that started on March 1, 1924, Urfa Deputy Sheikh Saffet Efendi and his 3 friends asked for the caliphate's attention. The abolition of the Caliphate-i Osmani Dynasty and the Republic of Turkey when Memali on the Elimination of External about (No. 53) Law, who attended the session were adopted by a vote of 431 to 158 members. With the same law, it was decided to take the dynasty members abroad.
The decision was reported to Abdülmecit Efendi by Istanbul Governor Haydar Bey and Police Manager Saadettin Bey. Abdülmecid and his family were secretly taken from Dolmabahçe Palace at 5.00 the next morning at XNUMX, and taken to Çatalca by car. Here, after being hosted by the chief of the Rumeli Railways Company for a while, they were put in the Simplon Express (the former Orient Express).
When Abdülmecid Efendi arrived in Switzerland, he was detained at the border for a while due to the laws of that country, since more than one spouse was not allowed to enter the country, but he was admitted to the country after this delay. After staying at the Grand Alpine Hotel on the shore of Lake Leman for a while, he moved to Nice, France in October 1924 and completed the rest of his life there.
Abdulmecid Efendi, by publishing a statement in Montreux, the first stop of the exile, accused the Turkish government of being 'spruce' (irreligious, irreligious) and urged the Islamic world to take decisions on caliphate. However, he did not talk about Ankara's pressure on Switzerland again.
Exile years and death
Abdulmecid Efendi lived a quiet life in Nice, France. He married his daughter Dürrüşehvar Sultan and his nephew Nilüfer Hanım Sultan to the sons of Hyderabad Ordinance, one of the world's richest; In this way, his financial situation improved. Since he could not find the interest he expected from the Islamic world on caliphate, he gave himself more to worship, painting and music.
Abdulmecid Efendi, who later settled in Paris, continued to apply the traditional protocol of the dynasty. He performed the Friday prayers in the Grand Mosque of Paris. He broke the marriage of the sultan and the princes, and distributed documents carrying his own monogram. He prepared documents stating that he expelled the princes who had unbecoming behavior from the dynasty. When he was asked to give a joint mandate with Vahdeddin, as a result of the family union planned to take advantage of the dynasty's rights over Iraqi oil, he refused to give joint power, claiming he was the official head of the caliph and the family. Thus, as a result of this remaining attempt, the dynasty could not provide the benefit they hoped for.
After her son's grandchildren, who were very fond of France to marry the Kavalali princes of Egypt, and after her son's departure, she was left alone with her husbands and had painful days. He wrote the 12-volume Memories book, preserved by his daughter Dürrüşehvar Sultan.
He died of a heart attack in Paris, where he was in exile on 23 August 1944. Despite Dürrişehv Sultan Berr's efforts in his capacity as President Ismet Inonu princess before the funeral it was not accepted in Turkey. Funeral to Turkey was not fulfilled, the Grand Mosque in Paris was left to the board of trustees for 10 years and funeral mosque in Medina could not hold on to report further transferred Baki was buried in the cemetery.
- From Şehsuvar Kadınefendi: Şehzade Ömer Faruk Osmanoğlu
- Hayrunnisa Woman Chief (1876-1936)
- From Mehisti Kadinefendi: Dürrüşehvar Sultan
- Behrus Woman Chief (1903-1955)