Boron is a semiconductor element with an atomic number of 5 and an atomic weight of 10,81, with the symbol B in the periodic table. It is the first and lightest member of the 3A group of the periodic table. Boron has the capacity to make a wide variety of compounds as an element and has the ability to absorb neutrons, so it is one of the indispensable raw materials of the industry.
Boron is an element with a hard structure and resistant to heat, indicated by the symbol B. The boron mine, whose name we have heard frequently recently, was discovered 4000 years ago and was used for the first time in Tibet. In the following periods, it was used in silver and gold work by the Hittites and Sumerians, and the Arabs used it in medicine-related work, in ancient Greeks in cleaning-related work, in Roman glass work and in the Egyptians in work related to mummification. In other words, although we heard a lot of names recently, it was used frequently in ancient times.
Boron element occurs in nature in the form of salt, mixed with some elements and in free form. The most important boron element resources in the world are in our country, USA and Russia.
Used in many areas, the mine is most frequently used in the automobile industry, construction industry, computer systems, and the military. Our country is a country with approximately 75% of the boron mines, therefore it is important in terms of location. Since its export and production is very low, its current return to our country is also low. Boron deposits in our country are located in Kütahya-Kestelek, Balıkesir-Bigadiç, Kütahya-Emet, Eskişehir-Kırka facilities.
Where Is Boron Used?
Boron mine, leather colorant, insecticides, herbicides, electronic refining, cosmetics, medicine, cement corrosion inhibitors, adhesives, refractory, disinfectants, catalysts, nylon, fertilizers, fire resistant materials, Nuclear fuel technology, medical industry, textile glass fiber, boron alloys, Metallurgical flux, Insulated glass fiber, Boron silicate, Antiseptics, medical industry glasses, electric glasses, boric acid production, photography, paint, textile, metallurgical applications, attachment resistant material, detergent industry, soap industry, coating industry , enamel industry, glass industry areas.
When this mine is strategically extracted from the soil, it is among the industrial mines that can be widely used in all areas of human life, both as refined boron products and as raw materials.
It is not possible to deny the contribution of this mine to the experience and access of boron, which is used in space technology in the world, and the information and electronic age. Scientific American, one of the scientific journals in the world, reported that they developed an automobile in which compounds made of boron could be used instead of oil. Issues related to the use of boron in vehicles have been on the agenda of western companies for a long time.
Which Boron Mines in Our Country?
Substances with different proportions of boron oxide are called boron minerals. In our country, it is rich in boron minerals. Ulexite, colemanite and tincal boron minerals are found in our country. Our country has approximately 72% of the boron minerals in the world. China, Russia and the USA come after our country, boron minerals in our country are operated by one of the state institutions, Eti Maden İşletmeleri.
Where Will Boron Mine Be Used?
Boron mine, which is currently used as an additive in aircraft fuels, is planned to be used in land and sea vehicles in the coming years. As a result of the researches, the use of boron mine as a support for batteries is expected to be 3 times more powerful than the batteries. Due to this, it will solve the battery power problems of electric vehicles due to the increase in the power of boron mine batteries.
In addition, researches are still being conducted to use the boron mine in place of other mines. If positive results are obtained as a result of these researches, our country will gain a considerable strategic power. Boron mine is also of great importance due to its lightness, reduction of friction, energy efficiency and resistance to heat. All of these details show the world's future fondness for this element. If there is no problem in terms of planning, our country will have great prosperity in this respect and will strengthen itself economically.
Physical Properties of the Boron Element
Boron exists in a variety of allotropic forms, including one amorphous and six crystalline polymorphs. Alpha and beta rhombohedral forms are the most studied crystalline polymorphs. The alpha rhombohedral structure breaks down above 1200 0C and the beta rhombohedral form is formed at 1500 0C. The amorphous form transforms into beta rhombohedral above about 1000 ° C and when any pure boron is heated above its melting point and recrystallized, it turns into beta rhombohedral form.
The different properties of the compounds made with various metal or nonmetal elements allow the use of boron compounds in many industries.
Chemical Properties of Boron Element
Boron element consists of 8B, 10B, 11B, 12B, 13B isotopes. The most stable isotopes are 10B and 11B. The rates of these isotopes in nature are 19.1-20.3% and 79.7-80.9%, respectively. The 10B isotope shows very high thermal neutron retention. Thus, it can be used in nuclear materials and nuclear power plants. There is a high percentage of boron isotope 10B ore deposits in Turkey.
Boron behaves like non-metal compounds in its compounds, but unlike pure boron, it is an electrical conductor like carbon. Crystallized boron is similar to diamond in terms of appearance and optical properties and is almost as hard as diamond.
What Are Boron Minerals?
Boron minerals are natural compounds containing different proportions of boron oxide in their structures. There are more than 230 different boron minerals in nature. Commercially most important boron minerals; Tincal, Colemanite, Kernite, Ulexite, Pandermite, Boracite, Szaybelit and Hydroboracite. The main boron minerals that are converted into high value-added products at international quality standards by Eti Maden, the World Boron Leader; Tincal, Colemanite and Ulexite.