Tram is an urban vehicle operating on iron rails.
Previously, with the use of trolleys with compressed-air motor used as a horse, then electric trams were made. The wagons resemble train wagons. It takes its electric current from either the rails or the overhead line.
The first trams in Turkey September 3, 1869 in Constantine Karopano Lord Brought to you by the company. The horse-drawn trams operated on the Azapkapı-Galata-Tophane-Beşiktaş line as the first line. The tram in Istanbul was removed on August 12, 1961 on the Rumeli side, and on the Anatolian side on November 14, 1967, and a tram was put on the Taksim-Tunnel line again in 1991.
Tramway is a kind of passenger vehicle. Tramways are called as a French word. The purpose of the tramway is to carry passengers to reduce the traffic for the city.
In terms of urban traffic, tramway transportation has some disadvantages such as the need for rail and electric lines along the road, but it also has superior aspects such as smoke extraction and working with electricity instead of petroleum products which have a higher price every day.
Like other machine vehicles, the trolley is a product of the industrial revolution that began to change the world's appearance in the 1800.
The first rail transport line in the city passenger transport was opened in 1832 in Harlem, New York. The vehicle's uy engine u consisted of only a couple of horses. At the last stop, the horses got stuck in front of the vehicle and the vehicle could be in the opposite direction. In Europe, the first trolley line was also opened in 1853, Paris. With the rails, a couple of horses were enough to ord carry up to thirty passengers at an 10 speed per hour Ray.
The development of civilization, however, prevented the equilibrium between the horse and the iron rails, a product of the industry. It was necessary to look for other solutions to the rapid development of the machine age.
For example, methods such as cable shooting, compressed air motor and charcoalless steam engine have been tried. Cable pulling attracted a lot of attention in the United States. A steel rope slid along the entire line in the channel between the rails. The rope was, of course, attached to the tram. The wire rope wrapped on a wheel by a fixed steam machine at the last stop made the tram pull from one stop to another. Steel rope traction system is very suitable for steep roads and is used today in ropeways.
The biggest problem with the steam engines and the traction system was the smoke that came off and the coal used to heat the boiler. To solve these problems, hot water-driven locomotives were built. In these locomotives, water was not heated in the boilers on the vehicle as in trains. Boiled in a cauldron on the ground, transferred to the boiler as a boiling, and steam was obtained in this way. Thus, no new boiling water was needed for each time.
At the 1879 exhibition in Berlin, an electric motor was shown, capable of pulling three small wagons at an 12 speed per hour. But this engine also had a big drawback. A third, energy-powered rail was needed to transmit energy to the engine. This rail was a great danger for people walking on the road, besides opening a new cost door.
The third ray proposal found its application area in subways. another solution for trams was produced. The two main rails were placed between the paving stones in order not to block the traffic of other vehicles. The electrical current is provided by the cables. At the height of the 5 m cables were stretched along the line. Thus, through the metal bars called ın trolley enerji, the energy could be transferred from the cable to the motor of the tram.
Tram and Development of the Ottoman Empire in Turkey
30 August 1869 in Dersaadet'de Tram and Facility Construction in with a contract on the streets of Istanbul passengers, goods transportation by rail for the animals pulled by the car management, 40 year by Konstantin Krepano Efendi's company called 'Dersaadet Tramway Company X was given.
In 1871, the first equestrian tram started to work on 4 including Azapkapı-Galata, Aksaray-Yedikule, Aksaray-Topkapı and Eminönü-Aksaray. In the first year of operation, 430 generated revenue from 4,5 for 53000 million passengers at XNUMX.
Later on, Voyvoda opened lines such as Kabristan Street-Tepebaşı-Taksim-Pangaltı-Şişli, Beyazıt-Şehzadebaşı, Fatih-Edirnekapı-Galatasaray-Tunnel, Eminönü-Bahçekapı.
The trams, which started to work in the Ottoman Empire, were later established in the major cities of the empire, first in Salonika, then in Damascus, Baghdad, Izmir and Konya. The Ministry of Defense received trolley horses in 1912 during the Balkan War and received 30000 gold money, so Istanbul remained trams for more than a year.
The horse-drawn trolley, which started to work in 1869 in Istanbul, was replaced by electric tram in 1914.
The 12 Tramway Transfer, which was transferred to the Government on June 1939 and 3642 days, was connected to Istanbul Municipality and 16 was connected to IETT on June 1939 day and 3645 numbered law.
12 August 1961 was removed from the European side and 14 was removed from the Anatolian side in 1966 and the tramway management in Istanbul ended.
At the end of 1990, the historical tram between Tünel and Taksim was put back into operation and 3 motive (tow truck) is still on the 2 line with 1640 wagon.
Zeytinburnu-Kabataş The Sirkeci-Aksaray-Topkapı section in 1992, the Topkapı-Zeytinburnu section in March 1994 and the Sirkeci-Eminönü section in April 1996 were opened. With a ceremony on January 30, 2005, the line Kabataşhas been extended to.