Culverts are hydrological structures of art that allow the continuous flow of water or the flow of water to pass under the road without damaging a highway or railway. Culverts can be built in different shapes and sizes according to the physical and hydrological characteristics of the land they are on.
What are the Types of Culverts?
- Pipe Culverts: They are used under not very high fillings. They can be poured with circular cross-section or basket handles. Those with circle cross section; They can be in diameters of 0,60-0,80-1,00 and 1,20 m. In order that the water entering and leaving the culvert does not damage the filling; Concrete or stone walls are built on the culvert heads.
- Box Culverts: They are box-section culverts with openings between 1-3 meters and a height of 0,6-3 meters under high fill. They can be made with one, two or three eyes. They can be adjusted for variable and moving loads. They are easy to assemble and robust structures.
- Arched Grilles: Arched culverts applied in high fillings where bottom and box culverts are not sufficient; They can be made of masonry or reinforced concrete arches.
- Decked Grilles: They consist of side legs made of concrete or stone material and an upper deck. It is less than 8 meters between two feet. If it is more than 8 meters, it is called a bridge.
What Should be Considered in Culvert Design?
Grilles should be designed in appropriate size. If the culverts are designed in smaller sizes than they should be; Water swelling as a result of precipitation can cause overflows and damage the road. In addition, there is a possibility that the small cross-sectioned culverts will be clogged by the materials carried by the water. In case the culverts are made bigger than they should be; It will increase the cost of the project.
The positions of the culverts are also important. They should be positioned in accordance with the stream bed on which they were built. Culverts that are not positioned in accordance with the stream bed may damage the road by causing flooding or blockages.
Nowadays, culverts are built especially for the regular progress of infrastructure and road works. Culvert types are designed and designed to be used in private areas. One of the most important features of the culverts is that they are designed in accordance with the structure of the land and soil where they are located. Therefore, the structure and physical properties of the culverts are also important. Culverts generally provide the passage of water flow under the railway or highway.