About Muradiye Complex

about muradiye kulliyesi
Photo: wikipedia

Muradiye Complex, Sultan II. The complex built by Murad in Bursa between 1425-1426. It also gives its name to the district where it is located.


Built for the purpose of spreading and opening the city, the complex consists of Muradiye Mosque, Turkish bath, madrasa, imaret and 12 tombs built in the following years. In the following years, with the burial of many dynasty members, it gained the appearance of a graveyard belonging to the palace and became the second burial place that hosts the most palace after Istanbul. The inscriptions of the gravestones and tombs of Bursa that were removed with various expropriations were brought to the mosque.

The complex was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List as one of the components of the World Heritage Site “Bursa and Cumalıkızık: The Birth of the Ottoman Empire” in 2014.

Complex structures

The main building of the complex is the Muradiye Mosque. It is in the form of poor mosques. It has two minarets. At the entrance, a magnificent wooden core with geometric ornaments developed from twenty four-arm stars on the ceiling was mounted during the repair made after 1855. The wooden muezzin shaft and the altar and the minarets of the plaster in the Rococo style were made after the 1855 earthquake.

The 16-cell madrasa structure is to the west of the mosque. The building, which is a typical early madrasah, was restored in 1951 and used as a Tuberculosis Dispensary for a long time. Today it is used as Cancer Diagnosis Center.

The mosque is 20 m. Imaret, which is located in the northeast of Istanbul, was built of rubble stone and covered with Turkish style tiles. Today it serves as a restaurant.

The bath, which is a very simple and simple structure, consists of coldness, warmth, two halvets and kulhan sections. The building was repaired in 1523, 1634 and 1742 and used as a warehouse for many years; Today it is the Disabled Center.

restoration

In the Bursa Earthquake of 1855, the mosque was slightly damaged, its minaret was split, the dome of the tomb was separated, and the classroom and the walls of the madrasah were damaged, and the complex had a major repair.

In the three-phase restoration started in 2012, the lead coating renovation work of the 12 tombs in the first phase, the relay, restitution and restoration work for the complex in the second phase; In the third stage, the plaster on the fresco was engraved and the fresco and calligrapher writings of the time below were unearthed one by one in their original and original form. When the complex was restored in 2015, the complex was opened to visitors.

Mausoleum community

II in the complex. Apart from the mausoleum, where Murad was lying alone, 4 tombs belonging to the princes, 4 tombs belonging to the sultan's wives, a tomb belonging to the princes of the princes were built, and on these dates 8 princes, 7 princely sons, 5 princely daughters, 2 sultan spouses and 1 sultan daughter were buried together. In addition, there are two open tombs where the members of the palace, who are not members of the dynasty, are buried. There is a mihrab niche on the south walls of all tombs except Şehzade Mahmut tomb. There are no mummies in any of the shrines.

  1. II. Murad Mausoleum is the largest of the mausoleums in the complex. For Sultan Murat, who died in Edirne in 1451, his son II. It was built by Mehmet (1453). Sultan II. Since Murad wanted to be buried near his older son Alaaddin, who he lost in 1442, his funeral was brought to Bursa from Edirne and he was buried directly in the ground without his body being placed in a sarcophagus or sarcophagus; The tomb was arranged openly for raining upon his will, and his galleries around the gallery for reading of the Quran. The most magnificent place of the plain shrine is the eaves covering over the porch at the entrance. In the restoration works completed in 2015, late baroque and Tulip Period motifs were identified on the interior walls of the building. II. No burial was made with Murad's will; The sarcophagi belonging to the sons Şehzade Alaaddin and their daughters Fatma and Hatice sultans, II. It is located in a simple room, reached through the tomb of Murat.
  2. Midwife (Gülbahar) Hatun Tomb, II. It is an open tomb, thought to have been built for Mehmet's midwife. There is no information about the exact identity of Gülbahar Hatun, but the idea that the person lying here is the midwife of Fatih has become a tradition. It is thought to have been built in the 1420s. It is the most modest of the dynastic shrines in Bursa.
  3. Hatuniye tomb, II. It is a tomb built in 1449 for Mehmet's mother Hüma Hatun. It is not clear who owns the second of the two sarcophagi in the tomb.
  4. The tomb of Gülşah Hatun was built in 1480s for Gülşah Hatun, one of Fatih Sultan Mehmet's wives. The carvings and ornaments of the plain and small building have been erased and have not survived to the present day. Although Bayezid's son Şehzade Ali has a name on the second sarcophagus in the tomb, Bayezid's prince in this name has not been found in the records.
  5. Cem Sultan Mausoleum is the richest decorations of the complex. The walls are 2.35 m above the ground. up to height is covered with turquoise and dark blue hexagonal tiles. This mausoleum was built in 1479 for Karaza Sancak Bey, the son of Fatih Sultan Mehmed, Mustafa. After the funeral of Cem Sultan was brought to Bursa in 1499 and buried here, he started to be referred to as the tomb of Cem Sultan. In four marble sarcophagi, Fatih's son Şehzade Mustafa, and Şehzade Cem II. Their sons Şehzade Abdullah and Şehzade Alemşah, who lost their lives in Bayezid's health, are medfs. The walls are covered with turquoise and dark blue hexagonal tiles up to 2.35 meters above the ground, the perimeter of the tiles are stamped with gilding. Places without tiles such as arches, loops, pulleys and domes are equipped with very rich engravings, especially the cypress motifs are in malacari technique.
  6. Prince Mahmut mausoleum, II. Bayezid's son, who died in 1506, was built by Architect Yakup Shah and his deputy Ali Ağa by his mother Bülbül Hatun. Şehzade Mahmut's two sons, Orhan and Musa, who were strangled when Yavuz Sultan Selim ascended the throne (1512) and then Bülbül Hatun were buried in this tomb. It is one of the richest cupolas of Muradiye with its tiles.
  7. II. There are also sarcophagi of Bayezid's spouse Gülruh Hatun, daughter of Kamer Hatun and son of Kamer Hatun, Osman.
  8. II. The tomb of Şirin Hatun, one of Bayezid's wives, was built in the late 15th century.
  9. Şehzade Ahmet's tomb was built with a decree of Yavuz Sultan Selim dated 1513. Its architect, Alâaddin, is the building's master Bedreddin Mahmud Bey, and his scribes are the masters of Ali, Yusuf, Muhiddin and Mehmed.[1] According to the latest information, he was buried with his brothers Şehzade Ahmed and Şehzade Korkut, who had been strangled by Yavuz Sultan Selim ascending the throne, and the sons of Şehenşah, Şehenşah and Ahmed's mother, Bülbül Hatun, and Mehmed's son Mehmed. It is believed that the tomb belonged to Kamer Sultan, daughter of Prince Ahmet, although it is controversial to whom the other sarcophagus belongs.
  10. Mükrime Hatun (d. 1517), the wife of Şehzade Şehenşah and the mother of Mehmet Çelebi, lies in a separate tomb.
  11. Şehzade Mustafa Tomb II. It was built by Selim (1573). The funeral of Prince Mustafa, who was strangled by his father Kanuni Sultan Süleyman in 1553, was buried elsewhere in Bursa and then transferred to this tomb. In the tomb, there are sarcophagi belonging to Prince Mustafa's mother Mahidevran Sultan, Şehzade Mehmet and Şehzade Bayezid's son Şehzade Murat, who was strangled at the age of 3. The most distinctive feature that distinguishes the mausoleum from others is the original wall tiles with golden gilded verses. There is no mihrab found in Bursa tombs in this tomb, which is known to have been built by Hassa architect Architect Mehmed Çavuş. A niche and a cupboard are placed in the inner corners of the walls on both sides of the entrance.
  12. Saraylılar Mausoleum, which is an open mausoleum, is thought to belong to two older sisters of Mahidevran Sultan.

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