About Dolmabahçe Palace

about dolmabahce palace
about dolmabahce palace

Dolmabahçe Palace is an Ottoman palace in Beşiktaş, Istanbul, between Dolmabahçe Street, which stretches from Kabataş to Beşiktaş, and on an area of ​​250.000 square meters, between the Bosphorus and the Bosphorus. It is located on the left bank, opposite Üsküdar and Kuzguncuk, at the entrance to the Bosphorus from the Marmara Sea by sea. Its construction started in 1843 and finished in 1856.

Historical


The area where the Dolmabahçe Palace is located today was a large bay of the Bosphorus, where the Ottoman Captain Derya was anchored until four centuries ago. This bay, where traditional maritime ceremonies were held, became a swamp over time. The bay, which started to be filled in the 17th century, was transformed into a “hasbahçe” (hadayik-hassâ) organized for the rest and entertainment of the sultans. The mansion and pavilions ensemble, which was built in various periods in this garden, was called “Beşiktaş Beach Palace” for a long time.

Towards the second half of the 18th century, Western influences began to be seen in Turkish architecture and the form of decoration called “Turkish Rococo” started to show itself in baroque style mansions, pavilions and public fountains, which were built under the influence of the West. Sultan III. Selim is the sultan who built the first Western-style buildings in the Bosphorus. Architect Melling had a pavilion built in Beşiktaş Palace, and he expanded other buildings he needed. Sultan II. Apart from the Topkapı Beach Palace, Mahmut built two large western-style palaces in Beylerbeyi and Çırağan gardens. In these times, the New Palace (Topkapı Palace) was deemed to have been abandoned even though it was not actually. Palace in Beylerbeyi, Çırağan with marble columns in Ortaköy, old Beşiktaş Palace and pavilions in Dolmabahçe II. It was the residence of Mahmut that changed according to the seasons. Like his father, Sultan Abdülmecit did not pay much attention to the “New Palace”, only staying there for a few months in winter. Almost all of forty children were born in Bosphorus palaces.

After sitting for a while in the old Beşiktaş Palace, Sultan Abdülmecit decided to build a palace in the European plan and style for the purpose of residence, summerhouse, guest reception and hospitality, and conducting state affairs. Although Abdulmecit did not receive a good education like other princes, he was a modernist with a modern idea. The sultan, who loved Western music and living with Western style, knew enough French to agree. When making the palace, "Evil and ugliness are forbidden here, only good things can be found here." is said to be said.

There is no information on the date of destruction of the pavilions in the place of today's Dolmabahçe Palace, exactly when it started to reveal the land recovered from the sea about 200 years ago. It is estimated that the old palace was still in place in 1842 and the construction of the new palace started after this date. [4] However, it is stated that the fields and cemeteries in the vicinity were purchased and expropriated in order to expand the construction land. Various sources give different dates about the completion date of the construction. However, from a French visitor who visited the palace at the end of 1853, we learn that the palace was still adorned and that the furniture was not yet installed.

The facade of Dolmabahçe Palace, built by Sultan Abdulmecit I, stretches along the European coast of the Bosphorus for 600 meters. In an eclectic style, a mixture of European architectural styles, it was built between 1843-1855 by Armenian architects Garabet Amira Balyan and his son Nigoğos Balyan. The opening ceremony of Dolmabahçe Palace, which was completely completed in 1855, was after the Paris Agreement signed with the Russian Empire on 30 March 1856. It was reported that the palace was officially opened on June 7, 1272 in Ceride-î Havâdis newspaper dated Hijri 11 Şevval 1856 and 7 June 1856.

During the reign of Sultan Abdülmecit, the cost of the palace, which holds three million pouches of gold, was transferred to the Treasury of the Palace, and the financially inundated state had to pay monthly, instead of the beginning of the month, and every 3-4 months. Sultan Abdülmecit lived only 5.000.000 years in Dolmabahçe Palace, which cost 5 gold.

In the period of Sultan Abdülaziz, who took over the Ottoman Empire in an economically complete bankruptcy, the palace's annual cost was 5.320 pounds. Sultan Abdülaziz was not a fan of the West as much as his brother Sultan Abdülmecit. The sultan, who preferred a modest lifestyle, had an interest in wrestling wrestling and cock fights.

On May 30, 1876, Sultan V. Murat was taken from his apartment in the palace and taken to Bâb-ı Serasker and a blessing was done at the Serasker Gate (University Center Building). While returning from V. Sirkeci to Dolmabahçe with a rowboat, Sultan Abdülaziz was taken to Topkapı Palace with another boat at the same time. A second allegiance ceremony was held in the upper floor table of the Mabeyn Department to Murat V, who was brought to the palace. Sultan II. While the whole city was illuminated with lanterns in honor of Abdulhamit, only one room was lit in Dolmabahçe Palace, the sultan was working on the constitution text. Suspecting the assassination, Sultan Abdülhamit gave up sitting in Dolmabahçe Palace and moved to Yıldız Palace. Sultan Abdülhamit had only 236 days left at Dolmabahçe Palace.

The palace, which was built with great expenses, was used during the feast ceremonies held at the Grand Exam Hall twice a year during the 33-year reign of Sultan Abdülhamit. During the reign of Sultan Mehmet II, the staff of the palace was reduced and very important events took place abroad, while few events took place within the palace for an eight-year period. These events included a banquet for 9 people on March 1910, 90, a week-long visit of Serbian King Petro on March 23 of the same year, a visit to Crown Max and a feast in honor of Austrian emperor Karl and Empress Zita. The death of the tired and old sultan was not in Dolmabahçe Palace, but in Yıldız Palace. VI. Sultan Vahdettin, who came to the throne with the title of Mehmet, preferred to live in Yıldız, but left the homeland from Dolmabahçe Palace.

Abdulmecid Efendi, who received the telegraph signed by the first TBMM chief Gazi Mustafa Kemal, was declared the caliph. The new caliph received the delegation from TBMM on the upper floor of Dolmabahçe's Mabeyn Daire Hall. With the abolition of the caliphate, Abdülmecit Efendi left the Dolmabahçe Palace with his retinue. (1924) [12] Ataturk had never been to the emptied palace for three years. In his period, the palace gained importance in two ways; hosting foreign guests in this place, opening the palace doors to the outside in terms of culture and art. Persian Shah Pahlavi, Iraqi King Faisal, Abdullah King Jordan, Afghan King Amanullah, British King Edward and Yugoslav King Aleksandr, who came for a special visit, were hosted in Dolmabahçe Palace by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. On September 27, 1932, the First Turkish History Congress was opened in the Examination Hall, and in 1934, the First and Second Turkish Language Congresses were held here. Turkey Touring and Automobile Association which is connected to the Alliance Internationale de Tourisme Europe meeting arranged in the Dolmabahce Palace, the palace is provided the first opening of tourism (1930).

The most important event in the palace, which Atatürk used as a residence during his visits to Istanbul during the Republican period, was the death of Atatürk on 10 November 1938. Atatürk died in room 71 of the palace. Last respect was passed in front of his body placed at the catafalga established in the Examination Hall. The palace was used by İsmet İnönü on his arrival to Istanbul during his presidency after Atatürk. After the one-party period, the palace was opened to serve foreign guests. Ceremonies were held and feasts were held in honor of Italian President Gronchi, King of Iraq Faisal, Indonesian Prime Minister Sukarno, French Prime Minister General de Gaulle.

In 1952, Dolmabahçe Palace was opened to the public once a week by the National Assembly Administration. The official opening of the National Assembly was held on 10 July 1964 with the meeting of the Bureau of the Presidency, and it was closed by showing a notice due to the letter dated 14 January 1971 of the Administration of the National Assembly. Dolmabahçe Palace, which was opened to tourism on June 25, 1979 with the order of the President of the National Assembly No. 554, was closed on October 12 of the same year. Two months later, he started to serve tourism again by the phone order of the Speaker of the National Assembly. With the decision of the MGK Executive Office dated June 16, 1981 and numbered 1.473, the palace was closed again to the visitors and a month later it was opened with the order of the General Secretariat of the NSC numbered 1.750.

In the gardens of the Clock Tower, Furnishings Office, Kuşluk, Harem and Crown Office, departments that provide cafeteria services for visitors and souvenir sales departments were created, and in this department, scientific publications, various postcards, and the selected editions of the products selected from the National Palaces Table Collection were offered for sale. . On the other hand, the Examination Hall and the gardens are reserved for national and international receptions, and with the new arrangements, the palace was regained with museum units, art and cultural activities within the museum. The palace has been serving as a museum since 1984.

Architectural form

Dolmabahçe Palace, constructed by taking care of the monumental dimensions of the European palaces, cannot be connected to a specific form since it is equipped with elements of different forms and methods. In its plan consisting of two wings with a large middle structure, it is observed that the items with architectural value in the past were handled with a different understanding and used for decoration.

Although Dolmabahçe Palace does not have a unique architectural style that falls into certain schools, the French Baroque, German Rococo, British Neo Classicism and Italian Renaissance have been applied in a mixed way. The palace is a work made in the artistic atmosphere of that century, taking into account the Ottoman palace requirements and being under the influence of the west in the art of the society that has been trying to modernize with a western understanding. As a matter of fact, when attention is paid to the 19th century mansions and palaces, it can be noticed that they are not just about the artistic events of the century, but also the development of society and technique.

Features

Although its appearance by the sea is western, Dolmabahçe Palace, which is surrounded by high walls on the garden side and consists of separate units, was built on a 600 m long marble dock. [17] The distance from the Mabeyn Office (today the Museum of Painting and Sculpture) to the Crown Office is 284 m. In the middle of this distance is the Merasim (Inspection) Department, which attracts attention with its height.

The Dolmabahçe Palace has three floors, symmetrical plan. There are 285 rooms and 43 rooms. The base of the palace is made of chestnut tree logs. In addition to the pier on the sea side, there are also two frescoed doors on the land side, one of which is very fancy. In the middle of this seaside palace surrounded by a well-kept and beautiful garden, there is a ceremony and a ballroom which is higher than the other parts. The large, 56 columned reception hall 750 attracts attention with its magnificent crystal chandelier, illuminated by British, 4,5 tonnes.

The entrance side of the palace was used as the acceptance and negotiations of the Sultan, and the wing on the other side of the ceremony hall was used as the harem section. Its interior decoration, furniture, silk carpets and curtains and all other items have come to the present day exactly as in the original. Dolmabahçe Palace has a richness and splendor that is not found in any Ottoman palace. The walls and ceilings are decorated with paintings of European artists of the period and gold ornaments weighing tons. Everything has the same color tones in important rooms and halls. All floors are covered with different ornate wood parquet. The famous Hereke silk and wool carpets, the most beautiful works of Turkish art are laid in many places. Rare decorative handicrafts of Europe and the Far East adorn the palace. Many rooms in the palace have crystal chandeliers, candlesticks and fireplaces.

This one is the greatest ballroom in whole palaces of the world. The huge crystal chandelier weighing 36 tons from its 4,5 meter high dome hangs. This hall, which was used in important political meetings, congratulations and balls, was previously heated with an oven-like order below. The central heating and electrical system was added to the palace between 1910 and 1912 during the reign of Sultan Mehmet Reşad. One of the six baths is decorated with carved alabaster marbles in the selamlık section. The upper galleries of the big hall are reserved for orchestras and diplomats.

In the harem section, which is reached by crossing the long corridors, there are the sultan's bedrooms and the section of the mother of the sultan and the other women and servants. The northern extension of the palace is allocated to the princes. The building, the entrance of which is in Beşiktaş district, today serves as a Museum of Painting and Sculpture. On the outside of the Palace Harem, there were the Palace Theater, Istabl-Âmire, Hamlacılar, Attiye-i Senniye Anbars, aviary kitchen, pharmacy, pastry shop, sweethouse, bakeries, flour factory, “I love Bays”.

Dolmabahçe Palace is located on an area of ​​approximately 250.000 m². [19] The palace filled the sea with almost all of its outbuildings, and on this floor, 35-40 cm. 40-45 cm in diameter. It was built as a masonry on a 100-120 cm thick, very strong horasan mortar mattress (radiogeneral), which was integrated with horizontal beams reinforced on it by driving oak piles at intervals. Pile lengths of 7 to 27 m. ranges from. Horizontal loincloth bands are in the rectangular cross section of 20 x 25 - 20 x 30 cm. Horasan mattresses are 1–2 m of the main mass. They are formed to overflow. The foundation floors of the old palaces demolished were repaired and reused. Since they are very robust, none of them have been carried, no cracking and splitting.

The main and outer walls of the palace are made of solid stone, the partition walls are made of blend brick, floor, ceiling and roofs are made of wood. Iron tensioners are used for reinforcement on the body walls. Massive stones were brought from Haznedar, Safraköy, Şile and Sarıyer. Brick body walls covered with Stuka marble are covered with paneling using porphyry marble plaques or precious trees. Window frames are made of oak timber, the doors are made of mahogany, walnut or more valuable timber. Çıralı pine timber was brought from Romania, oak planting and beams were brought from Demirköy and Kilyos, and door, paneling and parquet timber from Africa and India.

Marmara marble was used in masonry domed baths built in underground alaturka style and Egyptian alabaster ore was used in Hünkâr bath. Windows do not use ultraviolet rays with special manufacturing windows. Wall and ceiling decorations, especially in places where the sultan is in use, are more than those in other places. Snow and rain water collected on the roofs are connected to the sewer by creeks and gutters. The sewerage network was installed with a sufficient amount of pipes, wastewater was cleaned with various processes, and it was provided to flow to the sea from four different locations.

Decorations

The interior and exterior decorations of Dolmabahçe Palace were made by using motifs taken from various art periods of the West together. The motifs in Baroque, Rococo and Empiric features are used intertwined. In the construction of the palace, a blue-colored marble extracted from the Marmara Islands was used, while interior decorations were made with precious marbles and stones such as water marble, crystal and porphyry. Eclectic (electoral) understanding is dominant in interior decoration as well as in exterior decorations. The wall and ceiling decorations of the palace were made by Italian and French artists. Gold dust is mostly used in interior decorations. The paintings were made on plaster and plaster, and dimensional surfaces were created with perspective architectural compositions in wall and ceiling decorations. The interior decoration of the palace has been enriched with additions in the course of history, especially the gifts of foreign statesmen and commanders, and the halls and rooms have gained a different value. A foreign artist named Séchan worked on the decoration and furnishing of the palace. In addition to European style (Regence, XV. Louis, XVI. Louis, Vienna-Thonet) and Turkish style furniture, the mattresses, mattresses and shawls seen in the palace rooms show that the Turkish style of life is maintained. In the documents of 1857, it was explained that Séchan was engaged for his success and that he had to be paid three million francs.

All of the upholstery and curtain fabrics are local and produced in the weaving houses of the palace. 4.500 carpets and 141 prayer rugs decorate the parquet of the palace (an area of ​​approximately 115 m²). Most of the carpets were produced at the looms in Hereke factories. The total number of Bohemia, Baccarat and Beykoz chandeliers is 36. The material of footed candlesticks, some fireplaces, crystal stair railing and all mirrors is crystal. The palace also has 581 crystals and silver candlesticks. Of the 280 vases in total, 46 are Star porcelain, 59 are China, 29 are French Sevres, 26 are Japan, and the rest are porcelains of various European countries. 158 watches, each with a distinctive feature, decorate the rooms and halls of the palace. Approximately 600 paintings were made by Turkish and foreign painters. Among these, there are 19 paintings by the palace painter Zonaro and Ayvazovsky, who came to Istanbul during the reign of Abdülaziz.

Wall and doors

Although there is no definite information about when the walls of Dolmabahçe Palace are very difficult to overcome, there are foreign sources that the walls of the palace were built in the times of Beşiktaş Palace and the old palace in Dolmabahçe.

At that time, the walls of the special garden called "Dolmabahçe" were destroyed, so when the magnificent buildings inside were constantly covered with dust, it was decided that this garden was worthy of more care and attention than ordinary gardens and that it was to be disposed of from its ugly situation. Because this place was in a remarkable position as it was one of the first places to be seen by the guests and passengers coming to Istanbul both by land and by sea. With the restoration and construction of the Dolmabahçe walls, it was informed to the executives and administrators of the construction through an edict that the palace could be integrated with the other in Beşiktaş, thus preserving its former reputation. A wall was built from Beşiktaş Palace to Kabataş, including Dolmabahçe. While the inhabitants of Fındıklı used to go to Dolmabahçe and Beşiktaş via Arap Pier, a harbor was built instead of the pier, and Dolmabahçe was allowed to pass through.

The importance shown to the Dolmabahçe Palace can also be seen at the gates on the land and sea side. Doors with a very ornate and imposing appearance provide integrity with the palace. The treasury gate is located between the Treasury-i Hassa and the Furnishings Department, which is used today as the administrative building. The round arched and barrel vaulted part forms the main beam of this door. The two wings of the door are made of iron. There are twin columns on both sides at the entrance of the door on high bases. Entrance to the courtyards of the Treasury-i Hassa and Mefruşat Apartments was provided through the doors on the right and left of the Treasury door. The medallion on the crowned upper part of the door has the oval shape of Abdulmecit's monogram and below it is the inscription of Poet Ziver dated 1855/1856. The inscription of the inscription is Kazasker Mustafa İzzet Efendi.

The decoration of the Treasury Gate consists mostly of cartridges, hanger garlands, pearls, egg strings and oyster shells. The Sultanate Gate, on which Abdulmecit's monogram is located, is located between two high walls with corridors. The door, which overlooks the garden I love on the one hand and Hasbahçe on the other, has two iron wings. There is a column on both sides of the entrance of the door, which has a monumental appearance. The door was crowned by the use of twin columns after the medallions enclosed in large boards. It has two towers inside and outside. The Sultanate Gate also attracts the attention of foreign visitors. Souvenir photographs are taken both by those who visit Dolmabahçe Palace and those who attend the Bosphorus tour.

Apart from these two gates, the Armchairs, Kuşluk, Valide and Harem Doors are carefully made gates on the land side of the palace. The facade of the Dolmabahçe Palace facing the sea side has five mansion doors with a crown, iron wings, medallions, decorated with plant motifs, connected by sliced ​​railings.

gardens

The bay between Beşiktaş Hasbahçe and the Karabali (Karaabalı) gardens in Kabataş was filled and the gardens were combined. Dolmabahçe Palace, built between these gardens, has very well-kept gardens in the area between the sea and the high wall on the land. Has Garden, which has a rectangular shape close to the square between the Treasury Gate and the palace entrance, is also known as Mabeyn or Selamlık Garden. There is a large pool in the middle of this garden arranged in western style. The "Kuşluk Garden", which is located on the land side of the examination hall, is named after the Kuşluk Mansion.

The Harem Garden, located on the black side of the Harem Apartment of Dolmabahçe Palace, has an oval pool and beds arranged in geometric shapes. Gardens on the sea side are considered as the continuation of Has Bahçe. There are two pools in the middle of the beds on both sides of Büyük Yalı Gate. The arrangement of the beds with geometric shapes, the use of objects such as lanterns, vases and sculptures in the decoration shows that the gardens are under the influence of the west, like the main building. Plants of European and Asian origin were used in the gardens of the palace.

baths

Two windows in the resting room of the bath, made of solid marble, located in the selamlık part of the palace, overlook the sea. From this room where there are tile stoves, table and sofa sets, the doorway is passed to the door, the ceiling of which is covered with crosshairs. There is a toilet on the left and a fountain made of porphyry marble on the opposite. It is passed from the right of the train to the massage room. The enlightenment of this place was provided with two large windows and phylloses. It is seen that night lights are made with the lamps placed in the glass panes on the left and right sides of the door that passes into the massage room. The walls of the bath, built in the Baroque style, are decorated with leaves, curved branches and floral motifs. There are porphyry basins to the left and right of the entrance, the workmanship of the mirror stones is remarkable.

You can enter the tiled bath of the Harem Office from a small corridor. On the right, the entrance to the bathroom's toilet features a bronze fountain decorated with mirror stone flower motifs. It has a simple toilet. At the end of the corridor, there are seating areas with two large windows and the massage room, which is illuminated by the ceiling filgos. In addition, there is a table made in Kütahya, made with underglaze technique, consisting of eight tile pieces and a candlestick in each tile piece. It is understood that this place is illuminated with eight candles at night. The walls of the massage room are covered with ceramics with 20 x 20 cm flower patterns. The mirror stone of the marble basin on the left side of the entrance is in baroque style. While passing to the temperature section, the glass partitions inside the wall on both sides of the door were made for oil lamps. Of the three basins here, the mirror stones of the right and left ones are marble carved and in baroque style. The bronze fountain basin opposite the entrance is larger than the others. The phylloses formed with geometric shapes on the ceiling provide the illumination of the space. The walls are covered with chamomile-patterned ceramics.

Another bath downstairs was used by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. There are three basins in the temperature of this bath, the illumination of which is provided with skylights. The bath-shaped bath is entered through a front room. There is a bathtub on the right side of the washing area, and a toilet and a faucet on the left side. There is a lead stained window opposite the entrance. From the left to the rest room. There is a medicine cabinet, a table and a cedar here. There is an exit to the corridor on the left side with a fountain decorated with mirror stone flower motifs on the left side.

Lighting and heating

The illumination and heating of Dolmabahçe Palace was provided by the gas shop located in the place where BJK İnönü Stadium is located today. The Dolmabahçe Gazhane was ruled by the palace treasury until 1873, while it was later transferred to the French Gas Company. After a while, the management of the company passed to the municipality. Lighting with air gas was used in some districts of Istanbul as well as Dolmabahçe Palace.

Heating of the Examination Hall was done with a different technique. The air heated in the basement of the hall was fed in through the porous column bases so that a temperature of up to 20 ° C was achieved in the large dome space. During the Sultan Reşad period, the original appearance of the gas lamps in the palace was preserved and converted into electricity. Until this period, heating was done through fireplaces, tile stoves and barbecues, while these were replaced by heating.


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