We will try to give you information on the history of the countries on the basis of continents and countries. First of all ...
HISTORY OF NORTH AMERICA RAILWAY
US Railway History
Even in 1809, there was an equestrian line in Philadelphia. He was interested in the United States when a steam locomotive line was opened between Stockton and Darlington in England. As in the European continent, the British dominated the market thanks to their many years of experience. 114 British locomotives were exported to America.
The first locomotives operated in America were the locomotives named "Stourbridge Lion", which were built in 1828 in England and made their first drive on 8 August 1829 on American soil. However, two more machines were shipped from the same fabricators Foster, Rastrick and Company. Two months ago, "Pride of Newcastle" was transferred from Robert Stephenson's workshop for the Delaware & Hudson Canal Company.
Thumb The Best Friend of Charleston tamamlan, built in New York in 1830 and Tom Thumb, built by Peter Coopers at the Canton Iron Works in Baltimore, are the first steam locomotives. .
On May 24, 1830, Baltimore & Ohio Railways opened the operation between Baltimore and Ellicott's Mill, where Tom Thumb would be used. He won the race against horses, which was held in line with expectations in the same year. A year later, on January 15, 1831, the South Carolina Railway assumed operation with the machine "The Best Friend of Charleston". Like most other machines that were first manufactured in England, this machine broke down as a result of a boiler explosion in June 1831 and took its place as a blind knot in history.
The expansion of the rail network in America has left the homeland of railway construction behind. On May 10, 1869, Promontory Point opened the first inter-continental connection connecting the east and west coasts. The distance between New York and San Francisco was 5319 km.
In 1831, in Philadelphia, Matthias William Baldwin founded Baldwin Locomotive Works, which until 1945 was recognized as the largest steam locomotive manufacturer in the world. From Eddystone, the later production site, Baldwin had also sent locomotives of different sizes to railway companies in England, France, India and Egypt. Other large enterprises producing steam locomotives in the United States became a company of Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton Corporation after the merger with manufacturers working under the assurance of American Locomotive Company (ALCO) and LIMA Locomotive Works. However, this merger attempt to take part in the rapidly developing diesel locomotive production since 1950 had failed. With the end of the steam locomotives, in 1930 Baldwin, LIMA and ALCO would become history.
In 1868, George Westinghouse invented the air pressure brake, and in 1869 he founded the WABCO-Westinghouse Air Brake Company. In 1872 he patented on his own behalf. Over time, this air pressure brake became the most common braking system used in rail vehicles.
In 1873, Eli Janney patented the self-coupling of vehicles, which was named after him. Janney-Coupling was popular in America, as well as in North America, Mexico, Australia, South Africa and China.
After the obvious improvement of the electric motors, in 1888 Frank Julian Sprague, the electrically operated car Streetcar ve
as a built in forwarder. Subsequently, in Richmond, he created the first successful large electric tramway system for the Union Richmond Union Passenger Railway kapsayan covering approximately 40 moving vehicles.
In 1893, Janney-coupling with pneumatic brake was made mandatory in the equipment of the lines in the USA under the "Safety Appliance Act" enforcement. Thus, the rate of accidents in vehicles was considerably reduced. Outside of America, air-pressure brakes and automatic coupling made train operation safe.
Canadian Railway History
Developments in Canada were progressing in a harsh way. In 1836, though, Champlain and St. The first Lawrence Railroad railway was opened, but only after the Act Guarantee Act 1849 in 1885, the construction of the line began to proceed seriously. In spite of its southern neighbor Amerka, who led the construction of the line with the principle of winning the West, Canada was seen as a problem of national unity. In XNUMX, the Canadian Pacific Railway opened its first intercontinental line.
HISTORY OF EUROPE RAILWAY
European railway expansion values on km basis from 1885.
Belgium Railway History
Belgium was the second European country to open a steam-powered railway line after Britain. Belgium followed an industrialization with coal and metal more than England. The aid factor was the high population density in western European countries. Thus, on May 5, 1835, the first line between the steam operated Brussels and Mecheln was opened on the European continent. Belgium is also the first country to formally request railroad construction. It has the world's busiest railway network to date, although some lines are out of use.
Railway History of France
In 1827, a horse-drawn line was opened between Saint-Étienne and Andrézieux in Zentralmassiv, 21 km long in France. It was built on the model of the British in the normal width of the screen and already started to be treated as the exit route of the coal mine. Two steam locomotives, first built by Marc Seguin in 1830, were commissioned to relatively back up the horse-run business. In 1832 the line was extended to Lyon and was already double-rail.
France's first steam-operated railway line was the Paris-Saint-Germain-en-Laye line, which opened in 1837. The first passengers on this line traveled on August 26. French railway lines were generally formed as a result of the merger of the government and private capital. The reason was financial insufficiency at that time. The way the government supported was also varied. Monetary aid or land and ground donation (totaling more than 1884 ½ billion francs by 1), interest-guaranteed financial aid (by law enacted on 11 June 1859), to Algeria lines amounting to about 1883 million francs by 700. cessation of financial assistance, lighter implementation of official supervision. The total length of the French rail network was over 1885 km in early 30.000.
Railway History of Germany
Germany's railway history began from 1816 September 1817, as evidenced by the failure of the royal cast iron steam vehicle in Berlin in 20 and 1831. At that time, an incident occurred in Friedrich Harkort's book "The train from Minden to Cologne", which he interpreted as follows:
“In Deilthal, a train emerged from Peussen, having the honor of bearing the name of Prince Wilhelm. The Prince Wilhelm railway (the first railway joint stock company on German soil) was about the length of Preussen (about 7.5 km) and ran from Hinsbeck (now Essen-Kupferdreh) on the edge of the Ruhr to Nierenhof (now Velbert-Langenberg). The first 13 years were only operated by horse power.
Germany's railway birth date is officially celebrated on December 7, 1835, the opening date of the Ludwigs-Railway between Nuremberg and Fürth. But
Since the supply of coal was very expensive, until the opening of the Sächsisch-Bayrisch Railway in 1851 - until then it was available from Zwickau - this six-km line was usually run by horses. Germany's first fully steam-powered railway was the Leipzig-Althen line, which opened on April 24, 1837, belonging to the Leipzig-Dresdner Railway. Over the next 15 years, the foundation of today's railway lines has been systematically designed, taking into account Friedrich List's design.
It was created
Austro-Hungarian Railway History
Between 1825 and 1832, the first equestrian railway was established on the European continent. From Budweis of Böhmen to Linz, it was more than 128 km long and was also the longest equestrian railway in the world. The first steam train operated in 1837 in Habsburgerreich, from Vienna-Floridsdorf to Germany-Wagram. Austria was part of Hungary's first distant Wien-Brünn line, which could be completed on July 3, 7, almost 1839 months after the opening of the first German distant line. The Danube kingdom triggered preliminary work to guide the construction of mountainous areas. Thus, on June 17, 1854, in which the neighboring country of Switzerland was still in the middle, the Semmering line and the world's first mountain line were opened.
Dutch Railway History
For the Netherlands, which had highly developed waterway networks, the railroad had less meaning than its southern neighbor, Belgium, which was shaped by the coal and metal industries. The Amsterdam - Haarlem line, which was opened on September 20, 1839, had little contribution to the parallel canals, which had been built as a wide blind line. The speed of the construction of the line began with the Belgian ports withdrawing trade from Germany to them by rail connection and forcing the Dutch ports to start from behind.
Italy Railway History
The first mechanically operated railway in Italy was commissioned in 1839. The lines belonging to private individuals and provinces, after the unification with the kingdom of Italy in 1861, became railway links operated by different people and countries and considered for many regions. In 1905, Ferrovie dello Stato was brought together by a law. This company split into parts in 2000 to be operated by a number of subsidiaries.
Swiss Railway History
Switzerland, which is now called the No.1 railway country, had lagged behind the rapid developments in neighboring countries until 1847. The reason was that Switzerland was described as the poor house of western Europe at that time, the material was insufficient and, on the other hand, the occurrence of violent differences of opinion prevented the necessary developments. Although there was a railway station in Basel even in 1844, it was the last stop of the French railway departing from Strasbourg.
For the first time in 1847, a joint line was opened with the Spanish Brötli Railway from Zurich to Baden. In 1882, Switzerland left Austria behind with the opening of the Gotthard Railway. The Gotthard tunnel, 15.003 meters long, was admirable for the conditions of that day.
History of Scandinavian Railway
Railroad in Scandinavia, processing after quite a while. The underlying reason was the attempt to carry out different industrialization studies (industrialization of agriculture) in this region. The first railway line in Scandinavia went from Copenhagen to Roskilde in 1847. Railway construction in Sweden was started immediately under state administration in 1850. The first train of Swedish state railways was between Stockholm and Gothenburg.
Scandinavia's role in the history of the railroad shows itself especially in the case of Norway. The country, which had been independent since 1905, was able to establish its current network when it completed its line to Bodø in 1962. In Finland - it was then part of Zarenreich - the first train was between Helsinki and Hämeenlinna. It took part in the 1980s for the Finnish railway network to be completely finished.
Railway History of Spain and Portugal
The Iberian peninsula plays a special role in railway history. Due to military considerations, the railway network was established in the form of a wide gauge (Spain 1.676 mm, Portugal 1.665 mm) as in the Spanish line. It was a wrong decision, with dire consequences given today's facts. Because in order for the Iberian railways to be integrated into the normal retracement network in Europe, costly decal exchange installation was required. Recently, efforts have been made to overcome this difficulty with the rebuilding of normal gear units. The first railway on the Iberian peninsula between Barcelona and Mataró in 1847
Russian Railway History
At that time Zarenreich's railway line was opened on October 30, 1837 between Saint Petersburg and the government house Zarskoje Selo, 23 km away, with a rail width of 1.829 mm. The necessary locomotive for this line was built by Timothy Hackworth in England. The following summer, the two-kilometer extension to Pawlowsk is delivered to traffic. The Zarskoje Selo-Railway was also called sarcastically as the hat line to the tavern ğinden, as it went to the venues of the nobles - including Johann Strauss. After the construction of this line, developments in Russia went very hobbly; After 10 years there was only 381 km of railway line.
Apart from the Warsaw-Vienna Railway (inaugurated in 1848), which operates in normal rule, in other line constructions constructed in Russia, the rule width is 1.524 mm. There were various rumors in the formation of a large scale in Russia. In fact, the Russian standard measures were determined by a commission for the construction of the Saint Petersburg-Moscow line. Alternatively, a 1.829 mm rule on the Zarskoje Selo-line was negotiated.
In the past, trains coming from western Europe could not be driven uninterruptedly on this line. Later, this problem was eliminated by replacing all wheelsets and bogies at border crossings. At the same time, different gauze widths of sliding material and gauge changing installations were used. Passengers could stay in the vehicle while the wheels were shifted to their new position on the axle within a few minutes. Eastern Poland, which was connected to Russia at that time, had a gauge width of 1851 mm, while the Warsaw-Petersburg Railway, which was built between 1862 and 1524, first had a normal gauge width line connection due to the Warsaw connection of the Vienna line.
The Transsiberian Railway, whose construction started in 1891, was of great importance in terms of connecting to Siberia. In October 1916, it was expanded from Moscow to Wladiwostok after 26 years of work. With a line length of 9300 km, Transsib is the world's longest railway line and so far it is the crossable single rail link between the east and west of the Asian continent. The current network of the Russian federation was terminated only in 1984 with the completion of the western Baikal-Amur-Magistrale (BAM).
In April 2005, a contract was signed between the Russian Railway (RŽD) and Siemens Transportation Systems (TS) for the development of high-speed trains for Russia. A 2005 billion Euro sales contract is also expected to be signed by summer 1.5. The Russian railway intends to commission Siemens with the construction of 300 trains with speeds of 60 km / h per hour. These trains are primarily considered for the Moscow - Saint Petersburg and Saint Petersburg - Helsinki lines.
Trains are also planned for the lines Omsk - Novosibirsk, Moscow - Nischni Nowgorod. In Russia, trains are wanted to be completed, especially by involving Russian dealers and cooperative partners. The delivery date of the first trains is set at the end of 2007.
Railway History of Greece
The first railway line was opened on 18 February 1869 in Greece. It was connecting the port of Athens and Piräus.
HISTORY OF ASIAN RAILWAY
Railway History of India
The Asian railway has developed disproportionately due to the extreme variation in population density. The first railroad on this continent operated in India between Bombay and Thana on 18 November 1852. India has adopted a gauge width of 1.676mm for the next fast-moving line construction. The first train in present-day Pakistan was in 1861, and in Sri Lanka in 1865. The line network grew from 1860 km in 1.350 to 1880 km in 14.977 and 1900 km in 36.188. Alongside this, a comprehensive network of meters has emerged, which has been consistently transformed into large gauges like India's since the 1960s.
Chinese Railway History
Despite India, which was a British colony, the Chinese empire had difficulties in using this new transportation vehicle. The first line in Peking was just a kilometer long, 762mm narrow gauge line that fell victim to superstition and was torn immediately after its opening. Second, the line opened in Shanghai in 1876 was again unavailable. However, in 1890, a 90 km railway network was formed.
In July 2006, the world's tallest railway line from Beijing to Lhasa opened at a height of 5000 m. The Maglev system, the world's latest rail technology, has found its application in China. In Maglev technology, the race between Germany and Japan started in 2006 with the 30 km line established by the Germans in China and took the Germans one step ahead.
Japan Railway History
The development in Japan is worth mentioning. Here too, the first train was only traveling between Tokyo and Yokohama on October 14, 1872, and later development was also very slow. Consequently, there was a 1900 km network by the end of 5892. This network focused specifically on the main island, Honshū. On June 11, 1942, the two island networks were connected for the first time, thanks to the 3613 km Kanmon-Tunnel between Honshū and Kyūshū.
North American and Caribbean
Lokomotora Copiapó, the first train in Chile, 1851-1860 The first steam-operated railway In 1837-1838, the island of Karibik traveled between Cuba and the sugar cane agriculture centers east of Havanna, Bejucal and Güines. The locomotive was reminiscent of Stephenson's ocket Rocket ve and was referred by the British firm Braithwaite. It was under construction until 1853, when the modern sugar plantation areas and
The Havanna, Matanzas and Cardenas ports were connected to western Cuba.
In 1851, the first train on this continent was heading to Callao, a sea port 13 kilometers from Lima, Peru. This short line was going back to Richard Trevithick's plans, even in 1817, he had designed a line from Callao to Cerro de Pasco, the silver-mining city of 4302 m. Trevithick's plans were reconsidered in 1868 by the American Henry Meiggs. Between 1851 and 1860, Lokomotora Copiapó operated in Chile between Copiapó and Caldera. This line is the second oldest railway link in North America. In September 1892, Ferrocarril was able to take Central Andino's first train from Lima to Oroya. Until 2005, it was the world's highest normal-powered railway line. The rail network of the countries of North America is rather flawed.
The Argentine railway is an exception, although the first train ran between Buenos Aires and Belgrano on December 1, 1862. Today, this country has a dense railway network that originates from Buenos Aires in the form of a star, and is practically used only for passenger transport in Buenos Aires state.
Australian Railway History
The railway had begun to be built in Australia in 1854. Simultaneously, two lines were opened between Melbourne and Sandridge in Victoria and between Goolwa and Port Elliot in South Australia. Before Federal Australia was established (January 1, 1901), as the Australian colonies formed independent associations, everyone chose the width of the retracement they saw fit, depending on the size of the region and the commercial power. Generally defended and still defended: 1067 mm (a different gauge) in Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania and Northern Territory 1435 mm (normal gauge) in Neusüdwales, South Australia and later the federal rail 1600 mm ( In Victoria and South Australia This different gauge width was considered continental and caused numerous complicated interruptions in the network when meeting systems. It was only in 3961 that the 1970 km east-west connection segment of TransAustralia was transformed into a normal segment. On January 15, 2004, after a hundred years of planning, the Darwin - Adelaide line and the other major Transcontinental line were completed, but this time Australia
north-south of the continent.
African Railway History
Large railway networks were established in many African countries - especially those under British rule - in the early 20th century. Cecil Rhodes did the pioneering work here. The independence of countries has often led to the loss of the necessary expert support, while wars and conflicts have caused many railway lines in black Africa to become unusable today. Well-built networks were in South Africa and Marokko at that time.
Source: Mehmet KELEŞ
Günceleme: 09/04/2023 18:19
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