The ship is a means of transport that can stand on water and has a certain size, capable of maneuvering (machine, sail, rowing aid, etc.).
The first known example of ships was that the Ancient Egyptians built long reed boats around 4000 BC. After 3000 BC, the Polynesian navigation system that allowed Polynesians to travel long distances in the Pacific Ocean was archived on the Wayback Machine site on December 12, 2013. they formed. From the 15th century BC the Phoenicians had spread throughout the Mediterranean through the trade colonies they established. Transport and trade between the colonies was provided by ships. Between 700-1000 BC, Vikings built long boats. Boats called kalyon have been built since the 1500's. In the 19th century, steamships began to replace sails. These are still in use.
There are various ship types. Tankers, containers, ore, LASH, rescue, icebreaker, yacht, factory, refrigerated, war and boat are the main types of ships.
According to Usage Purposes
- Fishing Vessels
- Hunting ships
- Product processing vessels
- Vessels carrying Passengers and Vehicles
- Cruise ships are cruise ships that offer high service standards.
- Ferries are vessels that can carry passengers and vehicles for short distances.
- Ro-Ro are vessels carrying wheeled vehicles. It is a solution method created in order to shorten long distance road transport.
- Cargo Ships
- Dry Cargo Ships
- Bulk carriers are ships that can carry bulk cargoes such as ore, scrap metal, and grain.
- Container ships are vessels carrying specially manufactured crates called containers in various sizes. They are fast and frequent ships.
- General cargo ships are vessels that can carry loads that can be packaged and stacked regularly.
- Cold air ships are ships whose cargoes are perishable products and that can protect them with their coolers.
- Tankersare vessels carrying cargo in liquid or gaseous state. They are specially designed and equipped according to the type of load they carry.
- Oil tankers are vessels carrying crude oil. They usually load from oil wells, offshore platforms or terminals and discharge to refineries.
- Product tankers are vessels carrying petroleum products and loading from refineries.
- Chemical tankers are vessels carrying chemical products in liquid form.
- Gas tankers are vessels carrying gas in liquefied or compressed state, equipped with special loading-unloading and security systems, with high investment costs and special operating conditions.
- LPG Tankers: Vessels carrying liquefied petroleum gas.
- LNG Tankers: Vessels carrying liquefied natural gas.
- Dry Cargo Ships
They are military ships with firepower that serve as defense and attack.
- Destroyer or Destroyer
- Aircraft carrier
- Helicopter ship
- Mine Drop Ship
- Mine Sweeper
- Assault boat
- Torpedo boat
They are military ships without firepower that support warships with supplies, personnel, etc.
- Logistics support ship
- Landing ship
Special Purpose Ships
- Service Vessels
- Fire fighting ships
- Rescue ships
- Icebreaker ships
- Hospital ships
- Scientific Research Vessels
Cruise and Competition Vessels
Wind power ships that use it are those that move forward with the aid of sails. Today, such ships are used for navigation purposes rather than commercial transportation.
By Dispatch Systems
- Steam power ships using the power generated by a reciprocating steam engine or steam turbines. Reciprocating machines used in the past are not used much today. Steam turbines are preferred in large-tonnage ships that require high power. They can be distinguished by the SS (steam ship) nickname in front of the ship names.
- Motor power ships that use it are those that are propelled by machinery such as an internal combustion diesel or petrol engine. Fuel oil, diesel oil and gasoline are generally used as fuel. They can be distinguished by the nickname MV (Motor Vessel), MT (Motor Tanker), MY (Motor Yacht) in front of the ship names.
- Gas turbine ships using,
- Nuclear power ships using the heat generated by the nuclear reactor are those that operate the steam turbine. It is used in military ships and submarines due to its high cost and security requirements.
- Electric power These vessels are vessels that travel with an electric motor powered by a turbine or an alternator driven by a motor.
Design Features and Structural Components
The basic structural components that make up a modern cargo ship are the boat and superstructure. Electro-mechanical systems (main engine, auxiliary engines, deck machinery, electronic systems), pipes and electrical circuits are also equipment components.
- Teknecan be defined as the outer shell of the ship that contacts with water and ensures its buoyancy. The interior of the boat consists of the engine room, the spaces that form the cargo hold or tanks, and the tanks into which other required liquids are carried.
- SuperstructureIt is a building where living and management areas such as, bridge, office, cabins are located.
- Engine roomis the part where the main engine that keeps the ship moving and the auxiliary engines that provide other needs are located. Although its location changes according to the design of the ship, it is generally located at the stern of modern cargo ships today.
- Piping circuitsProvides the transmission of liquids and gases needed on the ship and is made of various materials according to the intended use and the fluid passing through it.
- Ballast Circuits: Circuits used for filling and unloading ballast tanks that ensure the balance of the ship.
- Fuel Circuits: Circuits that provide the filling and transfer of fuel burned in the main and auxiliary machines.
- Oil Circuits: Circuits that provide filling and transfer of oil used in main and auxiliary machines.
- Cooling Water Circuits: Circuits used for the circulation of sea water and fresh water used for cooling.
- Fresh Water Circuits: Circuits that provide the transmission of fresh water used.
- Waste Circuits: These are the circuits used for the transmission of waste washing water, bilge water, toilet water, waste oil or disposal to off-ship facilities.
- Cargo Circuits: It is used in loading and unloading of cargo in tankers.
- Fire Circuits: These are the circuits that carry water to the fire extinguishing system.
- The bow or bow is the forward side of the ship;
- Stern or stern rear side;
- Starboard right side;
- The left side of the pier;
- Topside sides,
- Indicates the lower part of the hull.