The Wright Brothers, Orville (born August 19, 1871 - died January 30, 1948), Wilbur (born April 16, 1867 - May 30, 1912), American brothers who flew motorized aircraft for the first time in history.
On 18 August 1871, Alphonse Pénaud, the first structural balanced model aircraft Tuileries Bahcesi (fr: Jardin des Tuileries), launched a new era in aviation by flying 11 m in 40 seconds under the supervision of the Société de Navigation Aérienne in Paris. This model airplane, called the "Planophore", is the first structurally balanced plane in history. A toy like this attracted the Wright brothers' interest as a child.
Samuel P. Langley, who started experiments with the first Aerodrome model airplane in 1891, at the end of his four years of work, provided the Aerodrome No.V powered by steam power to rise 30 m and travel 1006 m. (Aerodrome in Latin - means Air Run) Its speed was 32 km per hour. Its next model, Aerodrome No.VI, flew 1896 m this time in November 1280 and remained in the air for more than 1 minute. These pilotless flights were sponsored by the US Department of War ($ 50,000) and the Smithsonian Institute ($ 20,000) for piloted flight.
Wilbur and Orville Wright, two bicycle masters from Dayton, Ohio, began systematically studying everything that might give them clues about how birds fly in 1890. Realizing that there is nothing useful for them in the scientific works and the experiences of the ancient people, the Wright brothers started to work only with the work of German engineer Otto Lilienthal, who experimented with a glider from a hill near Berlin and took very careful notes on this issue.
Wilbur and Orville Wright did not have a scientific education, nor did they attend a high school after high school. However, while carrying out their studies in the field of flying, they advanced their own methods in this field thanks to hundreds of experiments they carried out with model planes, kites, and human-carrying gliders. In order not to fall behind the developments in aviation as a country, the Smithsonian Institution - USA had given the Wenham and John Browning wind tunnel work in 1871 to the Wright brothers as well as Lilienthal's Lift & Drag painting in 1895.
Since Lilienthal closely studied the birds' flight, it should not be too surprising that her glider resembles a bird. Lilienthal demonstrated that an airplane that can fly must have a fixed wing in contact with the air. The control required to achieve a stable flight could only be provided by such a wing as he said, and the Wright Brothers based on Lilienthal's work on this issue.
The first single-wing and steam-powered propeller aircraft in the United States to fly heavily from the air, by German Gustav Weisskopf in April 1899, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, then Bridgeport Connecticut on August 14, 1901, and then on January 17, 1902, with a 11,300m Connecticut flight. had begun. The Smithsonian Institution continued to support the Wright Brothers, as Gustav Weiskoff (in his English translation as Whitehead) insisted on not acquiring American citizenship.
The Wright brothers' first aircraft to take off under Orville's control in North Carolina on December 17, 1903 was built based on aerodynamic sound theory.
This plane had two propellers. Together with the pilot its weight was 335 kg. Orville flew for 12 seconds on the first try and covered only 37 meters. On his last attempt that day, this time increased to 59 seconds, and he flew a distance of 260 meters.
The Wright Brothers had now built a plane that could fly, but they didn't know how to fly it. The Smithsonian Institution continued to convey to the Wright Brothers all the information it had obtained in correspondence with leading aviators Louis Mouillard, Gabriel Voisin, John J. Montgomery, Louis Blériot, Alberto Santos Dumont and Percy Pilcher.
On June 4, 1908, the first 'official' flight of the USA was made by Canadian Glenn H. Curtis in an airplane that could take off without outside assistance called June Bug. This flight is America's first official "Heavy Airborne Aircraft and Flight". Curtis holds the # 1 Pilot License, while the Wright Brothers have licenses # 4 and # 5.
Rapid aviation developments in Europe and the US War Department and Smithsonian Institute, which started working with Canadian Glenn H. Curtis, would continue to market the Wright Brothers with the “First Flight”, even though they had difficulty starting the race. As a matter of fact, the USA organized an International Civil Aviation conference on December 12, 1928, under the name of the 25th anniversary of the First Flight. No state participated in this conference, which was declared as the "25th Year of the First Flight to the World", because of the "First Flight lie". It went down in history as a "beautiful celebration" (12-14 December 1928)