Today in History: 2 October 1890 Dr. The district governor, Şakir, claimed that a perfect railway should be established between Jeddah and Arafat in Hejaz, where he went.
Hejaz Railway History
Hejaz Railway, the Ottoman sultan II. Abdulhamid 1900-1908 between Damascus and Medina between the years of railroad was built.
When Sultan Abdülhamit ascended the throne, he brought many changes and innovations in the field of education and training. His next move was to bring and spread the raf Telegraph ına to Turkish territory. An innovative sultan II. Abdulhamid had a great dream in those days, he is a railway between Damascus and Medina.
Why Hicaz Railway was Necessary?
Being an Ottoman sultan at that time meant being the caliph of the Islamic world. II. Abdulhamid, on the other hand, deemed it appropriate to construct a railway to reduce the distance between Istanbul and the Holy Land. Hejaz lands were under the protection of the Ottoman state at that time. The land and power loss experienced by the Ottomans in recent years made the Sultan uneasy. Any attack on the area could be prevented by this railway. In addition, the shipment of troops would be easier and the general security of the region would be provided. Apart from security measures, this railway would have other benefits. At that time, journeys by camel to the Holy Land lasted for days and brought many diseases. The construction of the Hejaz railway would have a very important role at this point, because the journey by camel during the 12 day would be reduced to the 12 hour by rail. In addition, the construction of the railway would contribute to the Arab countries economically and help them grow.
Hicaz Railway Project
Ahmet İzzet Efendi stated many suggestions and important points related to the construction of the Hejaz railway in the report he presented through the Ministry of the Navy in 1892, when he was the director of foundations in Jeddah. The report focused on the security of the Hejaz region and the Arabian peninsula in general, and it was reminded that the Arabian peninsula was targeted by the colonial states. He stated that with the opening of the Suez Canal, Europeans could head towards the Arabian Peninsula and destroy the Arabian Peninsula. In addition, in this report, it was emphasized that only land defense could be made in the face of an attack from the sea. He stated that the security of the pilgrimage route would increase and the political position of the Ottoman state in the Islamic world would be strengthened. Ahmet İzzet Efendi's report was conveyed to the Sultan in 1892. II. Abdülhamit sent the report to Mehmet Şakir Pasha, who was the staff of Harbiye, for evaluation, and M. Şakir Pasha stated the technical and political benefits of the railway with a new report.
Sultan II. Abdulhamid Khan approved the project because he thought the construction of the railway would be of great benefit to the Islamic world. But the financial power of the Ottomans was not strong enough to cover the cost of the Hejaz Railway.
Hicaz Railway is being constructed despite economic difficulties
The construction of the Hejaz railway started in Damascus in 1900. German engineer Meissner was responsible for the construction of the railway. But among the engineers working in the construction of the other railway, the rate of Turkish was quite high. Workers were made up of Turks and the people of the region. It was thought that the construction of the project would amount to 4 million liras. The Ottomans soon realized that they could not keep up with the expenses incurred and sought other solutions. First, a loan was attempted; but European states did not agree to pay as much as 4 million lira. Then, salaries of civil servants were cut, official papers and documents were sold to contribute to the railway. In addition, all the proceeds from the sale of postcards, stamps and sacrificial skins were spent on the railroad. When these were insufficient, the “Hicaz Şimendifer Line Administration” fund, to which the sultan himself made the first donation, was established.
Together with the Sultan, statesmen, bureaucrats, provinces, education, justice and health personnel, as well as the public donated for the construction of the railway. The construction of the Hejaz railway was welcomed in all Islamic countries. Muslim people in this region supported the railway, which is under construction, by donating. A large part of the regions outside the territory of the Ottoman state were directed to donate through consulates. Many countries such as Tunisia, Algeria, South Africa, Iran, Singapore, China, Sudan, Cyprus, Morocco, Egypt, Russia, Indonesia, America, England, Vienna, France and Balkan Countries donated for the construction of the Hejaz Railway. While the Sultan accepted donations from non-Muslim citizens who were Ottoman subjects, he did not accept donations from Jews. It was said that the reason for this situation was that the Sultan did not accept it because he did not believe in the sincerity and human feelings of the Jews. The railway construction reached Amman in 1903 and Maan in 1904. Although the Ottoman Empire wanted to go to the Red Sea by making an additional line from Maan to the Aqaba region, the British did not allow it. The reason why the British welcomed them negatively was that they wanted to keep the Ottomans away from the Red Sea and Suez Canal. Thereupon, the Ottomans gave up this idea. The Haifa Railway, which followed, was completed in 1905. In the same year, in 1905, the railway line reached the Mudevvera region. On September 1, 1908, the "Hejaz Railway Line" was completed. The first trip to Medina was made on August 27, 1908.
Loved Sultan Abdulhamid II of the Muslim World
During the construction of the railway. Abdulhamid people in the holy land and the disturbance of the Prophet. Muhammad (pbuh) 's spirit did not want to be disturbed. For this, he ordered it to be operated by laying felt under the rails. Quiet locomotives were used in the region. The construction of the Hejaz railway has received great interest and appreciation. П. Abdülhamit has received many accolades such as “Yaşı Sultan-ı Alişan, şevket and Şan'ın efzunter”. During the construction of the Hijaz railway, bandits living in these regions opposed the construction of the railway and attacked. During the construction of the Hejaz railway, 2666 bridge and culvert, 7 iron bridge, 9 tunnel, 96 station, 7 pond, 37 water tank, 2 hospital and 3 workshop were made. The total cost of the railway has reached 3,5 million pounds. П. After Abdulhamit was deposed, the administration and the name of the Hejaz Railway were changed. While the real name was id Hamidiye-Hicaz Railways ler, they changed their name to “Hicaz Railways.. 7 January With the Mondros Treaty signed in 1919, the Ottoman Hicaz lost all its dominance in the region. Then the management of the hejaz railway was taken from the hands of the Ottoman state. Fahrettin Pasha managed to bring Bible Relics in Medina to Istanbul. Hejaz Railway 1. It was used extensively until World War II.
Although the Hejaz railway was used for a short period of time, more than half of the world did not spare their help and the unity continued to be built together.