Who is Nikola Tesla?

Who is Nikola Tesla?
Who is Nikola Tesla?

Nikola Tesla (July 10, 1856 - January 7, 1943), American inventor of Serbian origin, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer and futurist. Today, it is known for its contributions to the alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.


Born and raised in the Austrian Empire, Tesla received an advanced education in engineering and physics in the 1870s and gained hands-on experience working in telephony and the new electric power industry in the early 1880s at Continental Edison. He immigrated to the United States of America, where he became a citizen in 1884. He worked at Edison Machine Works before setting out on his own for a short time in New York. In order for its partners to fund and market their ideas, Tesla set up laboratories and companies in New York to develop a variety of electrical and mechanical devices. His alternating current (AC) induction motor and related multiphase AC patents licensed by Westinghouse Electric in 1888 earned him substantial money and became the cornerstone of the multiphase system the company would market.

Trying to develop inventions that he could patent and market, Tesla conducted various experiments on mechanical oscillators / generators, electrical discharge tubes, and early X-ray imaging. He also built a wireless-controlled boat, one of the first to be exhibited. Recognized as an inventor, Tesla was showing his achievements to celebrities and wealthy clients in his lab, and he was noted for his showmanship at public conferences. He also often ate at Delmonicos. During the 1890s he continued his ideas on wireless lighting and wireless distribution of electrical power around the world in high-voltage, high-frequency power experiments in New York and Colorado Springs. In 1893 he made statements about the possibility of wireless communication with his devices. Tesla tried to bring these ideas to practical use in the unfinished Wardenclyffe Tower project, an intercontinental wireless communication and power transmitter, but before he could complete it he ran out of money.

After Wardenclyffe, Tesla worked with a number of inventions in the 1910s and 1920s with varying degrees of success. Tesla, who spent most of his money, lived in many hotels in New York, leaving behind unpaid bills. He died in New York in January 1943. Tesla's work fell into relative uncertainty until after his death at the General Conference on Weights and Measures in the 1960s, magnetic flux density as the SI unit was called tesla. This has resurfaced interest in Tesla since the 1990s.

Nikola Tesla was born on 10 July [EU June 28] 1856 in the town of Smiljan in the Austrian Empire (present-day Croatia) in the town of Lika, of Serbian descent. His father, Milutin Tesla (1819-1879), [14] was an Eastern Orthodox priest. Iuka Tesla (née Mandić; 1822-1892), whose mother was Tesla's mother and her father was an Orthodox priest, was skilled at making craft tools and mechanical tools at home. He had the ability to memorize Serbian epic poems. Đuka had no formal education. Tesla thought he had borrowed his photographic memory and creative talents from his mother's genetics and was influenced by him. Tesla's ancestors came from western Serbia near Montenegro.

Tesla was the fourth of five children. He had three sisters named Milka, Angelina and Marica, and an older brother named Dane. Tesla was five years old when Dane died from a horseback riding accident. In 1861, Tesla attended his primary school in Smiljan. There he studied German, arithmetic and religion. In 1862, Tesla's family moved to Gospić, Lika, where Tesla's father worked as a parish priest. After finishing elementary school, Nikola started secondary school. In 1870 he moved to the north of Karlovac to study high school at the Higher Real Gymnasium. Since the school is on the Austro-Hungarian military border, the lessons were in German.

Tesla would later write that he was interested in electrical demonstrations, thanks to his physics professor. Tesla stated that he wanted to "know more of this wonderful force" with these demonstrations of "mysterious events". When Tesla was able to calculate integrals in his head, his teachers believed he was cheating. He completed his four-year education in three years and graduated in 1873.

In 1873, Tesla returned to Smiljan. He caught cholera shortly after his return. Nine months fell into beds and returned from death repeatedly. In a moment of despair, Tesla's father (who at first wanted Tesla to enter the priesthood) promised to send his son to the best engineering school when he recovered from the disease.

In 1874, Tesla avoided conscription into the Austro-Hungarian army by fleeing to Tomingaj in Smiljan, near Gračac, southeast of Lika. There he explored the mountains wearing a hunting suit. Tesla said that his contact with nature made him stronger both physically and mentally. While at Tomingaj, he read many books and later said that Mark Twain's works had miraculously recovered from his previous illnesses.

In 1875, Graz entered the Austrian Polytechnic school, a military border school in Austria. Tesla never missed any of his lectures in his first year, passing nine exams (almost twice what is required), getting the highest grades possible. He started a Serbian culture club, and he even received a letter of praise from the dean of the technical faculty to his father saying "your son is the star of the first degree". In his second year, Tesla got into an argument with Professor Poeschl over the gramme dynamo when he suggested that commutators were not necessary.

Tesla said he worked from 03.00:23.00 to 1879:XNUMX, except on Sundays and holidays. After his father's death in XNUMX, Tesla found a package letter from his professor to his father. There were warnings in the letter that Tesla would die by working hard unless he was removed from the school. At the end of his second year, Tesla lost his scholarship and became addicted to gambling. In his third year, he gambled with his allowance and tuition money. He then returned his first losses by gambling again and handed over the money to his family. Tesla said he "conquered his passion there at the time," but he was later known to play billiards again in the US. When it came time for the exam, Tesla was unprepared and asked for an extension to study, but his request was denied. In the last semester of his third year, he did not get a grade and never graduated from university.

In December 1878, Tesla left Graz and broke off all relations with her family in order to hide the fact that she dropped out of school. His friends thought he had drowned near the Mora River. Tesla moved to Maribor, where he worked as a draftsman for 60 florins a month. He spent his free time playing games with locals on the streets.

In March 1879, Tesla's father came to Maribor and begged for his son to return home, but he refused. Nikola also had a nervous breakdown. On March 24, 1879, Tesla was returned to Gospić, accompanied by police officers, because he did not have a residence permit.

On April 17, 1879, Milutin Tesla died at the age of 60, after contracting an unknown disease. According to some sources, he died of a heart attack. That year, Tesla taught a large student classroom at his old school in Gospić.

In January 1880, two of Tesla's uncles raised enough money for him to study in Prague. He enrolled too late at Charles-Ferdinand University and had never studied Greek, a compulsory subject. He could not read or write Czech, another compulsory course. Tesla attended philosophy lectures as an auditor at the university but did not get grades for lectures.

Working on the Budapest Telephone Exchange

Tesla moved to Budapest in the Kingdom of Hungary in 1881. He worked under Tivadar Puskás for a telegraph company called the Budapest Telephone Exchange. Shortly after he started working, Tesla realized that this company under construction was not functional. That's why he worked as a technical draftsman in the Central Telegraph Office. Within a few months the company was operational and Tesla was appointed chief electrician. During his work, Tesla made many improvements to the Central Station equipment and said he developed a telephone repeater or amplifier that was never patented or made public.

Work in Edison

In 1882, Tivadar Puskás gave Tesla another job at the Continental Edison Company in Paris. Tesla then began operating in a brand new industry and installed an incandescent lighting facility in the form of a power plant throughout the city. The company had several divisions and Tesla worked at Société Electrique Edison, which was responsible for setting up the lighting system in the Paris suburb of Ivry-sur-Seine. There he gained a lot of practical experience in electrical engineering. He recognized his advanced knowledge in management, engineering and physics, and soon designed and built advanced versions of dynamo motors and motors. They also sent him again to fix engineering problems at other Edison facilities built in France and Germany.

Moving to the United States

In 1884, Edison director Charles Batchelor, who oversaw the Paris installation, was brought back to the United States to manage Edison Machine Works, a manufacturing division in New York. Batchelor wanted Tesla to be brought to the USA as well. Tesla immigrated to the United States in June 1884. He started working almost immediately at Machine Works in Manhattan's Lower East Side neighborhood. Machine Works; It was a crowded shop with a workforce of several hundred mechanics, workers, managers, and 20 “field engineers” who set up the large electrical service there. As in Paris, Tesla was working on fixing problems in facilities and developing generators. Historian W. Bernard Carlson stated that Tesla may have met with company founder Thomas Edison several times. One of these times, according to Tesla's autobiography, Tesla came across Edison, who said that Batchelor and the "Parisians" were out all night after repairing damaged dynamos on the ocean liner SS Oregon all night. After Tesla told them that he worked all night and fixed the Oregon, Edison told Batchelor that Tesla was a "damn good man." One of the projects awarded to Tesla was to develop an arc lamp street lighting system. Although arc lighting was the most popular type of street lighting, it required high voltage and was incompatible with Edison's low-voltage incandescent system. This caused the company to lose contracts in cities that wanted street lighting. Tesla's designs were never put into production, possibly due to technical advances in incandescent street lighting, or an assembly agreement that Edison cut with an arc lighting company.

When Tesla left Machine Works, he worked there for a total of six months. It was unclear which incident prompted him to leave the company. He could have left because of a redesign of the generator or a payment he could not receive for the rack-spread arc lighting system. Tesla had not been able to receive the payments from the Edison company that he believed he had previously deserved. Later, in his biography, Tesla stated that the Edison Machine Works manager told him that he would pay $ 50.000 to design "twenty-four different types of standard machines", but later received the reply "this is a joke." According to later sources, Thomas Edison made this offer, but later told Tesla that he "did not understand American humor." The amount of the payment that is said to be made from both sources is said to be strange as the company does not have that much cash (equivalent to $ 12 million today). Tesla's notes that he wrote on two pages in his diary, covering the dates December 7, 1884 and January 4, 1885, saying "Good for Edison Machine Works" contained only a comment on what happened at the end of his work.

Nikola Tesla Electric Lighting Company

Soon after he left the Edison company, Tesla was probably working to patent the arc lighting system he developed at Edison. In March 1885, he met with Attorney Lemuel W. Serrell. Serrell was the same lawyer used by Edison to assist in filing the patent. The lawyer introduced Tesla to Robert Lane and Benjamin Vail, two businessmen who agreed to fund Tesla Electric Light and Manufacturing, an arc lighting manufacturing and service company. Tesla sought to obtain the first patents granted to him in the US for the remainder of the year and patents covering an improved DC generator by building and installing the system in Rahway, New Jersey. Tesla's new system received comments from the technical press about its advanced features.

Investors did not pay much attention to Tesla's ideas about new types of alternating current motors and electric transmission equipment. After the utility began operating in 1886, it decided that the production side of the business was very competitive and decided to operate only one power plant. They abandoned Tesla's company and left the inventor broke, and founded a new service company. Tesla even lost control of the patents he produced because he assigned them to the company in exchange for shares. He had to work on various electrical repairs and as a trench digger for $ 2 a day. Later, Tesla stated that he had troubles in part of 1886 and wrote that his higher education in various branches of science, mechanics and literature seemed to be a mockery.

Alternating current and induction motor

In late 1886, Tesla met Alfred S. Brown, a Western Union inspector, and Charles F. Peck, a New York lawyer. The two men were experienced in starting companies and promoting inventions and patents for financial gain. Based on Tesla's new ideas on electrical equipment, including the idea of ​​a thermo-magnetic motor, they agreed to financially support the inventor and obtain their patents. Together they founded the Tesla Electric Company in April 1887. They agreed that 1/3 of the profit of the patents produced will be divided into Tesla, 1/3 to Peck and Brown, and the remaining 1/3 to fund development. They set up a lab for Tesla at 89 Liberty Street in Manhattan. Tesla worked here to make and develop new types of electric motors, generators and other devices.

In 1887, Tesla developed an induction motor using alternating current (AC), a rapidly expanding power system format in Europe and America due to its advantages in long-distance, high-voltage transmission. The motor used polyphase current that produced a rotating magnetic field to rotate the motor (a principle Tesla claimed to have devised in 1882). Patented in May 1888, this innovative electric motor was a simple self-powered design that did not require a commutator. This prevented the constant maintenance and replacement of spark and mechanical brushes from avoiding high maintenance.

In addition to patenting the engine, Peck and Brown helped publicize the engine. He followed up with press releases to technical publications of articles to work concurrently with the patent, starting with independent testing to verify a functional improvement. Physicist William Arnold Anthony, who tested the engine, and Thomas Commerford Martin, editor of Electrical World magazine, asked Tesla to demonstrate the AC motor at the American Institute of Electrical Engineers on May 16, 1888. Engineers working for Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company reported to George Westinghouse that Tesla has a workable AC motor and a related power system. He needed Westinghouse for the alternative existing system he was currently marketing. Westinghouse tried to obtain a patent for a similar commutator-less, rotary magnetic field-based induction motor developed by Italian physicist Galileo Ferraris in 1885 and presented on paper in March 1888, but decided Tesla's patent would likely control the market.

In July 1888, Brown and Peck signed a license agreement with George Westinghouse for Tesla's multiphase induction motor and transformer designs for $ 60.000 in cash and stock, and $ 2,5 per AC horsepower produced by each motor. Westinghouse also hired Tesla for a fee of $ 2.000 a month (currently $ 56.900) to become a consultant at Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company's Pittsburgh laboratories.

Tesla worked in Pittsburgh throughout the year, helping to create an alternative existing system to power the city's trams. There were times when he got very angry with discussions with other Westinghouse engineers over how best to apply AC power. Among them, they settled into a 60-rpm AC system that Tesla suggested (to match the operating frequency of Tesla's motor), but soon found that Tesla's induction motor wouldn't work for trams as it could run at a constant speed. Instead, they used a direct current traction motor.

Market confusion

Tesla demonstrated his own induction motor and Westinghouse licensed his patent in 1888 during a period of fierce competition between power companies. The three largest firms, Westinghouse, Edison and Thomson-Houston, tried to financially block each other while trying to grow their capital in a busy business world. There was even a "War of Current" propaganda campaign trying to claim that Edison Electric's direct current systems were better and safer than Westinghouse's alternating current system. Competing in this market meant that Westinghouse could not provide cash and engineering resources to develop Tesla's engine and related multiphase system.

Two years after Tesla signed his contract, Westinghouse Electric was in trouble. The recent collapse of Barings Bank in London caused investors to withdraw loans from the WE (Westinghouse Electric) company after the 1890 financial panic triggered. Sudden cash shortages forced the company to refinance its debts. The new lenders asked Westinghouse to cut what appears to be excessive spending on the purchase of research and patents by other companies, including copyright per engine license on the Tesla contract. At this point, the Tesla induction motor had failed and remained in development. Westinghouse was paying $ 15.000 annually in royalties, despite the few running examples of the engine and the smaller number of multi-phase power systems required to run it. At the beginning of 1981, George Westinghouse firmly explained to Tesla his financial difficulties. He said that if he did not comply with his lenders' demands, he could no longer control Westinghouse Electric and Tesla would no longer have to "deal with bankers" to collect future royalties. The advantages of owning the Westinghouse seemed likely clear to Tesla that the engine would continue to win its championship, and he agreed to remove the company from the royalty payment clause in the contract. Six years later, Westinghouse would buy Tesla's patent for a lump-sum payment of $ 1892 as part of a patent-sharing agreement signed with General Electric (a company that merged with Edison and Thomson-Houston in 216.000).

New York laboratories

The money Tesla made from licensing AA patents independently enriched it and gave him time and funds to maintain his own shares. In 1889, Tesla moved from Peck and Brown's rented shop on Liberty Street and would work in a number of workshops and laboratories in Manhattan for the next 12 years. His areas of work included laboratories on the sixth and seventh floors (175-1889) at 1892 Grand Street (33-35), the fourth floor at 1892-1895 South Fifth Avenue (46–48), and 1895 & 1902 East Houston Street. Tesla and his hired employees would carry out some of the most important work in these workshops.

Tesla coil

In the summer of 1889, Tesla traveled to the 1889 Exposition Universelle in Paris and learned of Heinrich Hertz's experiments between 1886-88, proving the existence of electromagnetic radiation, including radio waves. Tesla found this new discovery "refreshing" and decided to explore it completely. By repeating the experiments and then expanding them, Tesla sought to power the Ruhmkorff coil with a high-speed alternator that he developed as part of an improved arc lighting system. But he found that the high frequency current overheats the iron core and melts the insulation between the primary and secondary windings in the coil. Tesla solved this problem with an air-gapped Tesla coil instead of insulating material between the primary and secondary windings and an iron core that can be moved to different positions inside or outside the coil. In addition, Tesla Coil was invented by Nicola Tesla in 1891.

Citizenship

On July 30, 1891, Tesla became a citizen of the United States at the age of 35. In the same year, he patented his own Tesla coil.

Wireless lighting

After 1890, Tesla tried to transmit power by inductive and capacitive clutch using high AC voltages generated by the Tesla coil. He tried to develop a wireless lighting system based on inductive and capacitive connectivity in the near field and made a public demonstration by lighting Geissler tubes and incandescent bulbs from a stage. He spent much of the last decade working on variations in these new form of lighting with the help of various investors, but he was unable to extract a commercial product from any of these initiatives.

In 1893, St. In Louis, Missouri; At the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and the National Electric Light Association, Tesla told his audiences that he "was confident that he could send intelligible signals or transmit power over any distance without using cables."

Between 1892-1894, Tesla served as vice president of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, which today pioneered IEEE (together with the Institute of Radio Engineers).

Steam powered oscillating generator

Trying to find a better way to generate alternating current, Tesla developed a steam-powered reciprocating electric generator. He patented it in 1893 and introduced it at the Chicago Columbus World Fair that year. The magnetic armature vibrated up and down at high speed, creating an alternating magnetic field. This was induced alternating electric current with coils of wire placed adjacent. While it did get away with the intricate parts of the steam engine / generator, it was never a viable engineering solution to generate electricity.

Multiphase System and Columbus Fair

In early 1893 Westinghouse engineer Benjamin Lamme made great progress in developing an efficient version of Tesla's induction motor, and Westinghouse Electric began branding all multiphase AC systems as the "Tesla Multiphase System". They gave priority to Tesla's patents over other AC systems.

Westinghouse Electric asked Tesla to attend the 1893 Columbus World Fair in Chicago, where it had a large area in a building dedicated to the company's electrical exhibitions. Westinghouse Electric won a proposal to light the show with alternating current, and this was a key event in the history of AC power as it demonstrated to the American public the safety, reliability and efficiency of a fully integrated alternating current system. Tesla demonstrated a number of electrical effects related to alternating current and the wireless lighting system using a demonstration he had previously performed in America and Europe. It illuminated a wireless gas discharge lamp using high voltage and high frequency alternating current.

Inventions

According to Nikola Tesla, this is not the correct system with direct current. It was more conceivable to eliminate the commutator in both the generator (generator) and motor and to use the alternating current in the whole system. But no one has ever built an AC motor, and Nikola Tesla thought a lot about this problem. In February 1882, in a Budapest park, a classmate named Szigetti discovered the "Rotating Magnetic Field" that would revolutionize the entire electrical industry. There would be no need to connect to the rotating element. There was no longer a commutator.

Later he designed all alternating current electrical systems. Alternators, step-up and step-down transformers for economical transmission and distribution of electrical energy, and alternating current motors to provide mechanical power. Inspired by the abundance of wasted water power all over the world, he designed to achieve this great power with hydroelectric power plants that can distribute energy where necessary. He surprised the audience by saying "I will use Niagara Falls to generate electricity one day" in Budapest. Moreover, Tesla supplied 250.000 volts of electricity to his body to show that alternating current (AC) is safe.

Fluorescence, radar, MRI, Nikola Tesla's theories are projects that were created as a source.

As he put it, lightning flashes in his mind has often been his guide. He refers to these as bursts of light;

“… I still experience these bursts of light from time to time. It arises in situations like when a new idea flashes in my mind. But now it's not as exciting as it used to be, it's less effective than it used to be. When I close my eyes, I always see a very dark and monotone blue background. Just like on a clear but starless night. In a few seconds this area is filled with green glitters that sparkle and move towards me. Then, on my right side, I see two separate systems of parallel and close rays. These two systems stand at right angles to each other; Although yellow, green and gold are dominant, they contain all kinds of colors. Then these lines start to get brighter, and distinct spots with sparkles are sprinkled everywhere. This picture is slowly coming out of my field of view and sliding to the left, giving way to a dead gray that is not very pleasant. clouds are beginning to fill this place, swelling quickly and seeming to be trying to give themselves vivid forms. The interesting thing is that I cannot compare this gray to a distinct shape until the second stage is reached. Every time, just before I fall asleep, images of certain things or people come to my eyes. When I see them, I realize that I am about to lose consciousness. If they don't show up or if they reject it, I know that means I will have a sleepless night… ”

In those days direct current was generally known as the most suitable way to heat, light, power and transmit. But with direct current, the resistance losses were so great that a power plant was required for every square mile. The first incandescent bulbs (at 110 Volts) were bright even if they were close to the power plant, and those more than a mile away were dim due to the lost power.

He quit electrical engineering and left the ship in New York in 1884 with only 4 cents in his pocket. His experience had convinced him of an unnecessary mess that created commutator problems in DC motors and dynamos. He saw that a direct current generator creates alternating current in the external circuit in the form of wave sequences flowing in exactly the same direction. To get a direct current to rotate the motor, the method had to be reversed. Each electric motor's armature had a rotary commutator that changed its magnetic direction as it rotated to supply alternating current to the motor.

Alternative current

For a year, Tesla struggled to avoid starvation in this foreign country. He made a living by digging a hole for a while. But the pit digger he worked with, the master of Western Union, made a plan on this by listening to imaginary recipes of the new electrical systems that Nikola Tesla was interested in at meal times. He introduced Nikola Tesla to the owner of the company called AKBrown. Fascinated by Nikola Tesla's brilliant plans, Brown and a partner decided to make a major breakthrough. They put in a certain amount of money and Nikola Tesla set up an experimental laboratory on West Broadway. There Nikola Tesla prepared the plans for all the systems he designed such as generators, transformers, transmission line, motors and lights. He even designed two and three phase systems.

Professor WA Anthony of Cornell University tested the new alternating current system and immediately declared that Nikola Tesla's synchronous motor was equally capable of the best direct current motor.

At that time Nikola Tesla wanted to register his system under one patent with all parts. The Patent Office insisted on a separate petition for each important idea. Nikola Tesla filed his petitions in November and December of 1887 and received seven US patents over the next six months. In April 1888, he applied for four separate patents, including the multiphase system. These, too, were delivered quickly, without waiting. He received 18 more patents by the end of the year. Various European patents followed. This era of patent being distributed so rapidly was unprecedented. The ideas were interesting and just as different, there was no contradiction or prediction. That's why patents were issued without a single discussion.

Meanwhile, Nikola Tesla gave a very spectacular lecture at a meeting of AIEE (now IEEE) in New York and demonstrated single and multiphase alternating current systems. World engineers saw that the limitations in electrical energy transmission by wire had been overcome, opening the door to tremendous progress.

George Westinghouse, his employee William Stanley, Jr., who specializes in alternating current. When he resigned, he studied Nikola Tesla's work and realized the potential in him. He went to his laboratory and met Nikola Tesla. Westinghouse offered $ one million in cash for alternating current patents and $ 2,5 per sale. And he hired Tesla for 1 year.

The success of Westinghouse investments across the country required General electric to obtain a license from Westinghouse to maintain its competitive position in the booming electricity industry.

In some sources, Westinghouse offered to pay $ 1 million if Tesla gave up his contract because he was on the brink of bankruptcy, and it is known that the contract was abandoned, although it is not known whether Tesla accepted the offer.

In 1890, the international Niagara commission began working to use the power of Niagara Falls to generate electricity. The scholar Lord Kelvin was appointed chairman of the commission and immediately declared that the direct current system would be the best. But the power would be transmitted to Buffalo, 26 miles away. In this case he accepted the necessity of alternating current.

Westinghouse has contracted for ten 5000 horsepower hydroelectric generators and General Electric for the transmission line. This system transmission line, step-up and step-down transformers were suitable for Nikola Tesla's 2-phase project. In order to reduce the moving parts, large alternators with fixed armature inside and outside rotating area were planned.

This historic project created excitement, as no project of this size had been carried out until then. Ten large alternators of 250 Volts, making 1775 revolutions per minute, each delivering 2250 amps, generated 25 horsepower or 50.000 kW output at 37.000 Hz (Hertz) two-phase. Each of the rotors was 3 meters in diameter, 4,5 meters long (4,5 meters high in vertical generators) and weighed 34 tons. Each fixed piece weighed 50 tons. The voltage has been increased to 22.000 Volts for transmission.

Nikola Tesla said the following about alternating current and high frequency;

As long as the “… related to alternating current and high frequency” frequency is high, the alternating currents at high voltages oscillate on the surface of the skin without causing any injury. But this is not something that amateurs can do. Miliampers that can penetrate nerve tissues can have a lethal effect, but amps on the skin do not harm for short periods. Low currents that can leak under the skin, whether they are alternating or direct current, can lead to death… „

Remote radio control

Later, Nikola Tesla's leadership in the field of radio, called Radio, went further than communicating with the Morse code. In 1898 he held a remote controlled demonstration by radio in New York City's Madison Square Garden. It is where the traditional Electricity Fair thrived, and usually Barnum-Bailey put a large tank in the middle of the large area where the circus operates and filled it with water. He put a boat on this small lake with a 1 meter long antenna mast to swim. Inside the boat was a radio receiver. Nikola Tesla did various things, such as going forward, turning right or left, stopping, going back, turning the lights on and off, thanks to remote radio control. The unforgettable show fascinated all audiences and took place on the front pages of daily newspapers.

High frequency lead

Nikola Tesla focused more on the unknown areas of high voltage and high frequency in his research. He always kept one hand in his pocket when using high frequency devices. He would insist that all laboratory assistants take this precaution, and this rule has always been applied by vigilant researchers around the voltage-hazardous device. Although not exploited at the time, Nikola Tesla's discoveries in the field of high frequency and high voltage paved the way for modern electronics. A high-frequency transformer (Nikola Tesla Coils - Nikola Tesla Coils) was passing high-voltage current through his body without damaging it, burning the gas tube he held in his bare hand. In those days, Nikola Tesla was actually showing the illumination of the neon tube and the fluorescent lamp.

Sometimes his experiments in the lower and upper parts of the frequency range led Nikola Tesla to unexplored regions. Working with mechanical and physical vibrations, it caused a genuine earthquake around his new laboratory on Houston Street. Approaching the building's natural resonance frequency, Nikola Tesla's mechanical oscillator threatened the old building by shaking it. A block away, the item at the police station began dancing mysteriously. Thus, Nikola Tesla proved the mathematical theories of resonance, vibration and "natural 7 periods".

Worldwide radio

On the hilly part of Long Island, near Wardenclyffe, the strange structure slowly rising would appeal to all onlookers. Resembling a large mushroom, except that it was one piece, the structure had a lattice-shaped skeleton, with the part wide on the ground and narrowing towards the peak 62 meters above. It was covered by a hemisphere 30 meters in diameter on the hill. The skeleton was made of solid wood columns, connected by thick bronze bolts and copper lamps. The hemispherical crest was covered with a copper screen superficially from the top. There was no iron metal in the entire structure.

Architect Standford White was so interested in the subject that he hired his best assistant, WD Crow, to do the project work for free.

Nikola Tesla, who lived in the old Waldorf-Astoria hotel on 34th Street, took a taxi, the cobbler ferry to the city of Long Island, and from there he transferred to Shoreham by the Long Island railroad for construction every day. In order not to interrupt the project control, the train's food service was preparing a special meal for him.

When the 30-square-meter brick building was completed near the great tower, Nikola Tesla began moving his Houston Street laboratory into the building. Meanwhile, some delays were encountered in the construction of radio frequency generators and the motors that drive them. A few glazers were trying to shape special tubes with plans ready.

World's most powerful transmitter

Research into high voltage and high frequency electricity transmission led Nikola Tesla to install and operate the world's most powerful radio transmitter on a mountain near Colorado Springs. He made the 60 meter diameter air core transformer around the 22,5 meter pole. The inner secondary was 100 turns and 3 meters in diameter. Nikola Tesla created the first man-made lightning bolt, while his manufacturer was using energy located a few miles from the station. 1 meters long, deafening lightning flashed from a 30 meter diameter copper sphere on top of a pole. It has been noted that this thunder is heard even in towns 40 km away. Voltage of 100 million Volts was used.

On his first try, he lit the power generator in the transmitter. But he continued his experiments until he was able to radio the power 26 miles away, fixing it. At that distance, he managed to light 10 incandescent bulbs with a total capacity of 200 kW. Later, Fritz Lowenstein, famous for his patents, witnessed this flamboyant feat when he was an assistant to Nikola Tesla.

In 1899, he spent the last of the money he received from Westinghouse for alternating current patents. Colonel John Jacob Astor came to rescue him financially and supported $ 30.000 for his trials in Colorado Springs. Then the money ran out and Nikola Tesla went back to New York.

JP Morgan had become a fan of Nikola Tesla for his flamboyant achievements and personality. Nikola Tesla soon became a regular guest of JP Morgan. The flamboyant gentleman Nikola Tesla, perfectly dressed, his cultured speech in several languages ​​and his civilized behavior, became the favorite of New York high society.

Ionosphere studies, radar and turbines

Nikola Tesla is the scientist who said and proved that the ionosphere, one of the layers of the Earth, can be used for the benefit of humanity. The ionosphere was discovered in the 19th century, it is the third layer on Earth and the most important feature of Nikola Tesla is that it enables the wireless transmission of electrical energy and radio, sound and electromagnetic waves from one point to another.

Nikola Tesla built the Wardenclyffe Tower between 1901 and 1905 on Shoreham, Long Island, which was the first radio broadcasting center and wireless electricity transport hub, with much research into the ionosphere.

Radio frequency alternator

In 1890, Nikola Tesla made high frequency alternating current generators. One of them with 184 poles gave an output of 10 kHz. Later, it achieved frequencies as high as 20 kHz. However, about ten years later, Reginald Fessenden developed the radio frequency generator with an output of 50 kW. This machine was increased to 200 kilos by General Electric and the Alexanderson alternator was put on sale, named after the man who installed Fessenden's first alternators and controlled their operation.

When British businessmen, who held most of the world's cables, saw that they were about to obtain the patents of this machine, the company "Radio Corporation of America (RCA)" was established with the urgent call of the United States Navy. With the establishment of the new firm in 1919, Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. Of America's powerful but inefficient Marconi spark transmitters were replaced by highly successful radio frequency alternators.

The first was established in NJ New Brunswick. It generated vibrations with a frequency of 200 kilograms of Hertz at 21,8 kilo Watt and was used in commercial work. This was the first continuous, reliable transatlantic radio service. These alternators provided all the power of the radio center instead of Nikola Tesla's tower. Thus, Nikola Tesla's dream of a world-wide wireless was fulfilled 30 years later with the use of the transmitter he invented.

Five months after Tesla's death, the American Supreme Court ruled that the wireless communication technique previously approved by the American Patent Office on behalf of Marconi was invalid and that the patent right belongs to Nikola Tesla.

Remote control, cosmic sound waves and space

In 1898, it applied the remote control management system to a vehicle for the first time. He introduced this invention to the world in May, 1898, at Madison Square Garden. The mentioned vehicle is a boat that moves on water and can be controlled by a remote control. Everyone who followed Nikola Tesla, who used affirmation methods in the promotion of his projects, believed that Nikola Tesla did this with his brainpower. Later Nikola Tesla announced the remote control.

A year later, Nikola Tesla was also closely interested in the existence of life in space. For the first time in the world, he sent sound waves from his laboratory in March 1899. He recorded cosmic sound waves from space. The reason why he did not receive interest and support from the scientific community when he announced this was that cosmic radio waves had no place in the scientific community in those years.

In August 1917, he explained that by sending short wave pulses on distant objects, they could be viewed by collecting the reflected short wave pulses on a fluorescent screen.

personality

Nikola Tesla has never been married. He thought that being single and asexual helped his scientific abilities. The friction that arose between the outraged Nikola Tesla and Thomas Edison, some of the engineers and assistants who worked with him in their research at the Waterside Power Plant and the Allis Charmes Factory was against it. Today we have no information about the result of flat rotor Nikola Tesla turbines.

Over the years, less and less news has been received from him. Sometimes journalists and biographers would call him and want to interview him. It got more and more awkward, away from reality, turned towards deceitful imagination. He did not have the habit of taking notes. He claimed and proved that he could always keep all the information about his research and experiments in his mind. He said that he was determined to live 150 years, and when he reached the age of 100, he would write his memoirs, explaining in detail all the information he gathered during his research and experiments. II. When he died during World War II, his safe was seized by military rulers, and nothing was heard of the type of records.

A peculiar inconsistency of Nikola Tesla was also revealed when he was given two honorary titles. He refused one. In 1912, it was announced that Nikola Tesla and Thomas Edison had been selected to share the $ 40.000 Nobel Prize. Nikola Tesla also declined this award. However, when he was awarded the AIEE Edison medal to Nikola Tesla in 1917, he was able to accept it.

“… He said the following about the hypersensitivity of his five senses and the difficulties he suffered from this; “The roaring sounds coming from near and far were making me fearful and I could not tell what they were. When the sun's rays were interrupted periodically, it created such a huge force on my brain that I was passing myself. I had to strain all my will to pass under a bridge or other structure because I was feeling unbearable pressure on my skull. I could be as sensitive as a bat in the dark, I could detect the presence of an object meters away, thanks to a chill on my forehead… ”

Nikola Tesla and Thomas Edison

The opportunity and luck that Nikola Tesla was looking for did not come easily. When he met Thomas Edison, who was then busy looking for a market for an incandescent lamp in his first laboratory on Pearl Street in New York, Nikola Tesla explained the alternating current system he had found, with youthful excitement. "You are wasting your time on theory," said Edison.

Tesla tells Edison about his work and the alternating current scheme. Edison is not too interested in alternating current and gives Tesla a task.

Although Tesla did not like the task given to him by Edison, he completed the task in a few months when he learned that Edison would give him $ 50.000. He solved the problems in the direct current plant. When he demands the fee that Edison had promised him, Edison said to his surprise, "he can understand American jokes when he begins to think like a complete American" and does not pay a fee. Tesla resigns immediately. The short duration of collaboration will be followed by a prolonged competition.

Nikola Tesla and JP Morgan

In March 1904, in the Journal of Electrical World and Engineering, Nikola Tesla declared that the Canadian Niagara energy firm wanted to implement a wireless energy transmission system and to use a system capable of distributing 10 horsepower at a voltage of 10.000 million Volts.

The Niagara Project never happened as stated on paper, but a small power plant was built. But it had an impact on the fate of the flamboyant Long Island.

Tesla's most important project was Wireless Energy Communications. It is recorded that he could light 20 bulbs from 25 miles away without a cable.

Nikola Tesla said for the first time that electricity spreads from a source to the environment and transmits it wirelessly and in very large amounts. Nikola Tesla, who proved this on paper, has shown this with his experiments later. There is a photo of himself holding a wireless lighted bulb in his hand. After receiving the patent of this project, Nikola Tesla's biggest supporter JP Morgan realized that with this wireless energy transmission, the company's economy would collapse and cut his financing support. If the support had not been cut that day, today people would be able to use electricity wirelessly for free.

Foresight Ability

Meanwhile, Electroman Nikola Tesla (1904) published his theoretical pamphlet describing his far-sighted vision of the future of big industry limited by Morse code. This pamphlet convinced everyone that Nikola Tesla was the oracle. In the "worldwide radio system", features that would provide a variety of possibilities were described. In the brochure, telegraph, telephone, news broadcast, stock market negotiations, aid to sea and air traffic, entertainment and music broadcast, time setting, picture telegraph, telephoto and telex services, and the radio site Nikola Tesla saw its later formation were explained.

Death and after

Tesla, which has an extraordinary character, has never been successful in money management. He spent the last years of his life constantly changing hotels to escape his debts. He died of heart failure in a room of the New Yorker Hotel on January 7, 1943, at the age of 86. Tesla, who was conducting a study called the Teleforce weapon before his death, was seized by the US government.

The institution most associated with what Tesla left behind was the California Institute of Technology. There are rumors that there are continuing work on what remained of Tesla and that there are technologies being developed.

Publications 

  • A New System of Alternating Current Motors and Transformers, American Institute of Electrical Engineers, May 1888.
  • Selected Tesla Writings, Written by Tesla and others ,.
  • Light Without Heat, The Manufacturer and Builder, January 1892, Vol. 24
  • Biography - Nikola Tesla, The Century Magazine, November 1893, Vol. 47
  • Tesla's Oscillator and Other Inventions, The Century Magazine, November 1894, Vol. 49
  • The New Telegraphy. Recent Experiments in Telegraphy wih Sparks, The Century Magazine, November 1897, Vol. 55

Books 

  • In a part of the novel Empathy written by Adam Fawer, information is given about Nikola Tesla.
  • Anderson, Leland I., “Dr. Nikola Tesla (1856–1943) ”, 2d enl. ed., Minneapolis, Tesla Society. 1956.
  • Auster, Paul, “Moon Palace”, 1989. Tells the story of Tesla.
  • Cheney, Margaret, "Tesla: Man Out of Time", 1981.
  • Childress, David H., “The Fantastic Inventions of Nikola Tesla,” 1993.
  • Glenn, Jim, “The Complete Patents of Nikola Tesla,” 1994.
  • Jonnes, Jill “Empires of Light: Edison, Tesla, Westinghouse, and the Race to Electrify the World”. New York: Random House, 2003. ISBN
  • Martin, Thomas C., “The Inventions, Researches, and Writings of Nikola Tesla,” 1894.
  • O'Neill, John Jacob, "Prodigal Genius," 1944. Paperback reprint 1994, ISBN 978-0-914732-33-4. (ed. Prodigal Genius available online here)
  • Lomas, Robert, ”The man who invented the twentieth century: Nikola Tesla, forgotten genius of electricity,” 1999.
  • Ratzlaff, John and Leland Anderson, “Dr. Nikola Tesla Bibliography ”, Ragusan Press, Palo Alto, California, 1979, 237 pages.
  • Seifer, Marc J., “Wizard, the Life and Times of Nikola Tesla,” 1998.
  • Tesla, Nikola, "Colorado Springs Notes, 1899–1900"
  • Trinkaus, George “TESLA: The Lost Inventions”, High Voltage Press, 2002. ISBN 0-9709618-2-0
  • Valone, Thomas, “Harnessing the Wheelwork of Nature: Tesla's Science of Energy,” 2002.
  • Hunt, Samantha, "The Invention Of Everything Else", 2009

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