Obstetrics and Gynecology Specialist Op. Dr. Ulviye Ismailova gave information about the subject. Gestational diabetes is diabetes that we diagnose during pregnancy. Its incidence is between 3-6% on average, and the probability of recurrence in the next pregnancies of the woman is extremely high. Although insulin secretion increases during pregnancy, hormones secreted from the placenta from the sixth month show resistance to insulin. This resistance causes blood sugar to rise in women at risk for diabetes. Uncontrolled rise in blood sugar brings with it the rise of sugar in the fetus, increased insulin secretion and the problems caused by this situation. For this reason, gestational diabetes is a disease that must be diagnosed and followed correctly. The risk is increased especially in pregnancies after the age of 30-35, overweight women, pregnant women who gave birth to more than 4 kg babies and those with a family history of diabetes. 25-29 days of pregnancy for diagnosis. Sugar loading test is done between weeks. Sugar loading test is recommended for all pregnant women, if the pregnant is in the high risk group, this test should be done when pregnancy is detected. It is generally applied as a 75 g loading test performed in a single step. It is recommended that the pregnant woman be fed with a normal diet for 3 days before the glucose tolerance test. It is applied in the morning after 8-12 hours of fasting. First, fasting blood sugar is checked.
In women diagnosed with gestational diabetes, diet should be regulated and insulin therapy should be started when necessary. The diet varies according to the patient's weight, height, presence of additional disease, and physical activity. The diet list prepared for each pregnant woman is different and the diet is personal. The important thing is to reduce carbohydrates and increase protein and vegetables. Since carbohydrate foods increase blood sugar, they should not be consumed at once, but should be taken in small portions at different meals throughout the day. White sugar, flour and its products, foods high in fat should be consumed in limited quantities. The sweet demand, which we see very often in pregnant women, should be met with fresh and dried fruits. Consumption of food that will provide the target sugar level in main and snack meals, planning physical activity, developing a sugar tracking system at home are the aims of treatment. Weight gain should be monitored at each control.
Gestational diabetes disappears with birth. However, these women who are candidates for type 2 diabetes should repeat the glucose tolerance test 6 weeks after delivery. If it is normal, sugar loading is done every 3 years. Women diagnosed with gestational diabetes during pregnancy should also change their lifestyle after giving birth, eat a diet dominated by Mediterranean cuisine, not smoke, and keep sports and especially walking in their life.