Prof. from Memorial Şişli Hospital, Department of Urology. Dr. R. Gökhan Atış gave information about the causes of kidney stones and modern treatment methods.
Turkey is located in the middle of one of the geographical regions, which is an important factor in kidney stone formation. Today, rapidly becoming widespread obesity, unhealthy diet, sedentary lifestyle, excessive carbohydrate and salt consumption increase the risk of kidney stones even more. Dr. R. Gökhan Atış said, “The most important symptom of kidney stones, which negatively affect the patient's quality of life, is pain. Kidney stone-related pain, which usually manifests itself in the form of pain that comes and goes, is so mild that it cannot be noticed in some patients, while in others it can be very severe. Patients usually describe this complaint as “low back pain, flank pain or flank pain.” said.
prof. Dr. R. Gökhan Atış listed the symptoms of kidney stones other than pain as follows:
- burning in urination
- Blood in urine
- frequent urination
- Difficulty urinating or urinating
- nausea or vomiting
Stating that some minerals in the blood are dissolved in the urine with a certain solubility balance and excreted from the body, this solubility decreases in people who have a family history of kidney stones or who live with reasons that may lead to stone formation, Gökhan Atış said, “These crystals collected by collapsing in the urinary tract grow and take the form of stones. Although there are many types of stones, calcium oxalate stones are the most common. In addition, infection-related stones, uric acid stones, cystine stones and calcium phosphate stones may also be seen. Kidney stones can be easily diagnosed thanks to today's technological opportunities. After the physical examination, imaging methods such as urological x-ray, ultrasonography and computed tomography are applied for the patient who applies to the doctor with stone symptoms. With these methods, almost all of the stones can be detected. In addition, a urinalysis and urine culture are performed to detect urinary tract infections or bleeding in the urine due to stones. In addition, blood tests are used to identify problems that the stone may cause or to investigate the source of this condition. used his statements.
Stating that a patient-specific treatment method is determined according to the size, location and type of the stone, Prof. Dr. R. Gökhan Atış continued his words as follows:
“After the diagnosis of kidney stones, the treatment plan; It is shaped depending on the severity of stone-related complaints, whether the stone causes any damage to the kidneys and whether kidney functions are impaired. The type of treatment is determined according to the size of the stone, the hardness of the stone measured in computed tomography, its location in the kidney, and the patient's factors. Kidney stones smaller than 2 cm are treated with extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWL) or Retrograde intrarenal surgery (flexible ureteroscopy), in which the kidney is accessed with curved instruments by entering through the urinary canal and the stone is broken into powder by laser. If the stone is over 2 cm in size, the method of breaking the stones out by entering the kidney with a 1 cm incision from the waist region (percutaneous nephrolithotomy) is applied. Kidney stones larger than 2 cm can also be treated with Retrograde intrarenal surgery (flexible ureteroscopy), provided that there are few sessions in experienced centers. said.
prof. Dr. R. Gökhan Atış said, “It is very important to determine the underlying cause of these stones after treatment in recurrent kidney stones. If a piece of stone could be removed during the procedure or if there is a stone dropped by the patient, this stone is analyzed in the laboratory to determine what its content is. In addition, some values in the blood and urine should be measured and it should be investigated whether there is an underlying metabolic or hormonal cause. After these studies, drugs that will prevent recurrence of stone disease can be used under physician control and recurrence of stone disease can be prevented. he said.