From Memorial Ankara Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Op. Dr. Figen Beşyaprak gave information about premenstrual tension syndrome and treatment methods.
Most women experience physiological and psychological problems before menstruation. Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS), also known as premenstrual tension syndrome in society, negatively affects women's daily lives. The complaints faced by women with the syndrome may also differ according to their living areas.
While psychological symptoms are more common in those living in the city life, physical findings are more prominent in those living in the natural life in rural areas. The negative effects of PMS can be alleviated with lifestyle changes and medications.
Affects 80% of women
Kiss. Dr. Beşyaprak, “Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS), which affects about 80 percent of the female population in the world, usually starts after the ovulation phase and continues until the menstrual bleeding. Symptoms, which are mild in most women, are severe in women who are in the 5th percentile. In cases where the symptoms are very severe, it is called a psychiatric disorder by the name of “Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder or Late Luteal Phase Disorder”. made a statement.
Sensitivity to hormonal changes is among the causes.
Kiss. Dr. Beşyaprak, although the cause of this syndrome has not been determined exactly; He stated that the hypothesis of sensitivity in the central nervous system was shown as the reason in current studies. The cause of PMS; It is seen as the body's hypersensitivity to the normal changes in hormones rather than the imbalance of hormones that occur in women during this period. In women who are sensitive to hormonal changes, this situation is due to many factors and may be partially genetically transmitted.
Both physical and mental symptoms appear
The symptoms of premenstrual tension syndrome observed in women of reproductive age, which is the most common regular menstrual period; Mentioning that it is classified as spiritual, behavioral and physical, Op. Dr. Beşyaprak said, “Among the mental and behavioral symptoms; depression, weakness, excessive desire to sleep, increased sexual desire, nervousness, tension, anxiety and lack of attention, appetite changes and food cravings. Physical symptoms include enlargement and tenderness of the breasts, edema, headache, constipation and diarrhea, excessive thirst, acne on the skin and abdominal pain. he said.
Psychological approaches and drug treatments can be applied
Kiss. Dr. Beşyaprak stated that the main purpose of PMS treatment is to reduce symptoms and increase the quality of life of the person, and stated that the treatment of the disease is examined under two headings: medication and psychological approaches.
Psychological approaches: Psychoeducation and lifestyle modification measures are usually sufficient for women with mild symptoms. However, exercise, relaxation, and cognitive behavioral therapy are recommended.
Birth control pills: If the patient's premenstrual symptoms have started or worsened after using contraceptives, then it is helpful to switch to another preparation or use another contraceptive method.
Medication: The most commonly used drugs in premenstrual tension syndrome (PMS) are antidepressant drugs from the serotonin reuptake inhibitor group, acting on serotonin, which is thought to be effective in the pathophysiology as well.
Hormonal therapy: One of the biological treatments used in PMS is hormonal treatments. Hormonal therapy strategies are based on the premenstrual symptoms being related to hormonal changes in the menstrual cycle, and in most of them the aim is to suppress ovulation.
Nutrition and lifestyle changes: Some dietary supplements are also recommended in PMS. However, there is little scientific evidence to show that these supplements are effective, with some exceptions. Vitamin B6, magnesium, calcium and vitamin D supplements are recommended for these patients. Promising agents include calcium supplementation, vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) supplementation, B1 and vitamin E, a diet of complex carbohydrates, and the use of vitex agnus castus, especially if pelvic pain is accompanied. A decrease in psychiatric symptoms was found in women who took 80 mg of vitamin B6 daily.
You can pass the premenstrual tension syndrome more easily with these suggestions:
1-PMS sufferers should first change their lifestyle and differentiate their habits.
2-Consumptions such as alcohol, cigarettes, salt, coffee and sugar should be avoided or restricted.
3- An active lifestyle should be adopted, physical activities should be done regularly.
4-In addition to consumption as food, vitamins and minerals should be taken as supplements.
5-Sleep pattern should be stable, bedtime and wake-up times should not be changed as much as possible and sleep quality should be ensured.
6- In order to both distract attention from PMS symptoms and reduce stress, participation in social activities should be ensured and efforts should be made in different areas.
7- In order to get rid of the swelling that occurs during the PMS period, drink plenty of water and take care of a balanced diet. If necessary, birth control pills should be started to reduce hormonal changes.
8-The symptoms of some disorders such as chronic fatigue syndrome, thyroid disorders, mood disorders such as depression and anxiety may resemble premenstrual tension syndrome. In order to make the differential diagnosis of these diseases, some tests should be performed and treatments should be applied accordingly.