Specialist Physiotherapist Gökhan Aygül gave information on the subject. Fibromyalgia (FM) is a clinical picture in which many symptoms such as chronic widespread pain and fatigue, sleep disturbance, cognitive dysfunction and depressive episodes often affect women between the ages of 30-50. Common body pains are tenderness in certain anatomical regions (tender points), chronic The disease, accompanied by symptoms such as fatigue, sleep disturbance, stiffness, subjective swelling, impairs the quality of life of the person because it causes both physical and psychological disorders.
Fibromyalgia is seen in approximately 2% of adults, is more common in women than in men, and is more common in Caucasians. However, its incidence increases with age and reaches 60% in women over 7 years of age. Although FM is mostly seen in women of childbearing age or working life, there is also a wide age distribution. In Turkey, approximately 100.000 people are diagnosed each year and this number is increasing day by day with the increasing recognition of the disease by doctors.
The cause of fibromyalgia has not been determined exactly. It is thought that there are many mechanisms that contribute to the formation of fibromyalgia. Evidence for some biochemical, neurohormonal, central nervous system, immunological, psychological and environmental factors thought to play a role in the disease has been found.
Researchers have found that first-degree relatives of patients with Fibromyalgia, who have a strong familial predisposition, have an 8-fold greater risk of developing Fibromyalgia than the general population. Family members of patients with fibromyalgia were found to be more sensitive to pain. Environmental factors As in many diseases, environmental triggers play a role in the basis of Fibromyalgia. Environmental factors that are mostly responsible for the development of fibromyalgia; physical trauma (especially to the trunk), some infections (Hepatitis C virus, Ebstein Barr virus, Parvovirus and Lyme disease etc.) and emotional stress.
However, it is not only major traumatic events that cause chronic pain, but also sleep disturbance and lack of exercise have been shown in community studies and experiments with healthy young adults to cause painful symptoms. Studies investigating the relationship between stress and fibromyalgia also show that serotonin levels are low in FM patients. and it may be related to depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance and impaired muscle function.
Chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain in fibromyalgia, fatigue, exhaustion, waking up tired, morning stiffness, feeling of swelling in soft tissues, tingling, chills, excessive sweating, feeling of coldness in extremities, chronic headache (migraine), temporamandibular joint pain bowel syndrome, dysuria (female) urethral syndrome), cardiac and respiratory system symptoms, anxiety, Raynaud's phenomenon, the most important finding of the disease is chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain.
In the examination of fibromyalgia patients, the patient's pain is on both the left and the right of the body, the lower and upper half of the body, and the skeleton. The patient states that the pain persists for more than 3 months. Areas where pain is felt; neck, waist, lower extremities, back, elbow, front of the chest, chin. The pain is in a wide area and the patient cannot clearly draw the boundaries. Stiffness is common in patients with fibromyalgia and is more pronounced in the morning and can last all day. The stiffness is felt throughout the body and does not cause functional loss. Its incidence varies between 75-85%. A feeling of swelling in the soft tissues is seen in 50% of patients with FM, and this sensation can usually be localized to the joint or extra-articular in the extremities. However, there is no objective swelling. Fatigue and weakness are moderate to severe in approximately 75-90% of patients with FM. It can be seen on a high level and is greatest when getting out of bed in the morning and later in the day, and usually lasts all day. Patients typically report being tired all the time. It affects the physical activity of the patients, and they state that weakness and fatigue become more pronounced while doing their daily work.
Physical therapy has an important place in the treatment of fibromyalgia. In addition, new widespread manual therapy methods, dry needle cupping therapy, acupuncture kinesio tape applications, and together with exercise support, serious positive results can be obtained in treatment. However, some psychiatric drugs are also helped. treatment is included. But the most permanent treatment is exercise.
In addition, self-protection of people after treatment has an important place. In particular, it is necessary to stay away from situations that will affect psychology, such as nervous stress and anxiety. It should not stay in a place where there is air circulation (ceryan) under the air conditioner. Even if he does not do heavy work, he should do it by dividing it into rest. It is important to lead a regular life by paying attention to nutrition and exercise.