Today in History: May 1st, Adopted as Workers' Common Day

May Labor Day
May Labor Day

May 1 is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) according to the Gregorian calendar. The number of days left until the end of the year is 244.

Railways

  • 1 May 1877 Baron Hirsch, in his letter to the office of chancellor, stated that he would continue the services of Rumeli Railways Company sincerely during the war. During the war, military transport would be paid for later. After the war was over, the company decided to stop the troops from moving to pay the money later. During the war, the government also had to pay the transportation fees of the migrants.
  • 1 May 1919 Since then, the operation of the railway commissioner between Nusaybin and Akçakale has been terminated and the railway has been transferred to the British-controlled company.
  • 1 May 1935 The contract was signed to ensure the purchase of Aydın Railways by the government. Contract 30 was approved in Parliament in May.

Events

  • 1707 – England, Wales and Scotland; Unified as Great Britain.
  • 1776 - The Illuminati was founded by Adam Weishaupt.
  • 1786 – By Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Figaro's Wedding opera was performed for the first time.
  • 1840 - The first affixable official postage stamp, also known as the "Penny Black", is issued in the United Kingdom.
  • 1869 – The famous music hall called Folies Bergère opened in Paris.
  • 1886 - Workers in Chicago, USA, went on a general strike for the 8-hour workday. As a result of the police firing, many workers were killed and injured. Labor leaders Albert Parsons, August Spies, Adolph Fischer and George Engel were executed on November 11, 1887, with false witnesses and evidence.
  • 1889 – May 1 is recognized as the common holiday of workers.
  • 1889 - German pharmaceutical company Bayer produced Aspirin.
  • 1900 – 200 people die in a mining accident in Utah.
  • 1906 – The first known May Day in Turkey was celebrated in Izmir.
  • 1909 – May Day events were held in Skopje.
  • 1909 – May Day events organized by Thessaloniki Socialist Workers' Federation were held in Thessaloniki.
  • 1912 – A May Day event was organized by the Ottoman Socialist Party in Istanbul.
  • 1918 – German troops entered the Don Soviet Republic after the Brest-Litovsk Peace Treaty.
  • 1921 – Shipyard Workers celebrated 1 May in occupied Istanbul. Workers joined the May Day, organized by the Socialist Party under the leadership of its associate Hilmi, with red flags and marched from Kasımpaşa to Şişli Hürriyet-i Ebediye Hill.
  • 1922 – 1 May was held in Ankara among the Imalat-ı Harbiye workers organized by the Turkish People's Participation Party. It was also celebrated at the Soviet Embassy.
  • 1923 – In Istanbul, tobacco workers, military factory and railway workers, bakers, Istanbul tram, telephone, tunnel and gas workshop workers celebrated May 1 on the street. They carried banners "Confiscation of foreign companies", "8-hour working day", "Week holiday", "Free Union and the Right to Strike".
  • 1925 - Cyprus became a British colony.
  • 1925 – When all kinds of demonstrations and marches were banned by the Law of Proclamation, May 1st became impossible to celebrate.
  • 1927 - The Nazi Party under Adolf Hitler held its first rally in Berlin.
  • 1930 – The planet Pluto, now classified as a dwarf Planet, is officially named. The planet was discovered on February 18, 1930.
  • 1931 - The Empire State Building in New York was opened.
  • 1933 – In Germany, May 1 was celebrated with grand ceremonies with the support of the ruling Nazi Party, which declared that day a holiday and "National Workers' Day". The next day, all union headquarters were occupied, their assets confiscated, and union leaders arrested.
  • 1935 – Aydın railway was purchased by the government.
  • 1940 – The 1940 Summer Olympic Games were canceled because of the war.
  • 1940 – 107 “artists”, 162 of whom were Hungarians, working in bars and entertainment venues in Istanbul were asked to leave Turkey within a week.
  • 1941 – Directed by Orson Welles, about the corruption in power and considered the best film of the century Citizen Kane The movie was shown for the first time.
  • 1944 – Gürmenek Dam was opened in Tokat.
  • 1945 – German Nazi Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels committed suicide, killing his wife and six children as Soviet Troops entered Berlin.
  • 1945 – II. End of World War II: The Banner of Victory is hoisted over the Reichstag building in Berlin.
  • 1948 – The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) is officially established. Kim Il-sung became the first President.
  • 1948 – Hürriyet newspaper was founded by Sedat Simavi in ​​Istanbul.
  • 1956 – Polio vaccine developed by Jonas Salk is introduced.
  • 1959 – CHP Chairman İsmet İnönü was attacked by a crowd of nearly a thousand in Uşak. İnönü was injured by the thrown stone.
  • 1960 – Cold War: U-2 Crisis – When the American Lockheed U-2 spy plane driven by Francis Gary Powers was shot down over the Soviet Union, it triggered a diplomatic crisis.
  • 1964 – Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT) was established with a private law as an autonomous public legal entity.
  • 1967 - Elvis Presley married Priscilla Beaulieu in Las Vegas.
  • 1968 – Hürriyet News Agency (HHA) was founded.
  • 1971 - Prime Minister Nihat Erim said, "Turkey cannot afford such a luxury" for the Constitution.
  • 1972 - North Vietnamese Troops capture Quang Tri. This first major city captured in the war with the United States enabled North Vietnam to establish dominance over the entire province.
  • 1976 – After 50 years, 1 May Labor Day was celebrated with a big rally in Istanbul Taksim Square. The May Day 1976, organized by DİSK, marked the beginning of the mass May Day celebrations in Turkey.
  • 1976 – The "Izmir" plane, which made the Paris-Istanbul expedition, was attempted to be hijacked to Marseille by a Turk named Zeki Ejder.
  • 1977 – During the 1 May Labor Day celebrations celebrated in Istanbul Taksim Square, 34 people were killed and 136 people were injured. The event went down in history as Bloody May 1.
  • 1979 – May 1 celebrations were banned in Istanbul and a curfew was imposed. Behice Boran, the Chairman of the Workers' Party of Turkey (TIP), who went out on the street, and nearly 1000 people were detained. Behice Boran and 330 Turkish Workers' Party members were arrested on 6 May. A group of unions affiliated with DİSK, on ​​the other hand, held a “on leave” May 1 celebration in İzmir.
  • 1980 – The last “legal” May Day celebrations were held before the September 12 coup. Demonstrations were banned in Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir under martial law. DISK held a "off-duty" May 1 celebration in Mersin. After the military coup of September 1, 12, 1980 May, which had been an official holiday under the name "Spring Festival" until then, was included in the working days.
  • 1982 - Argentina landed troops on the Falkland Islands, which belonged to the United Kingdom. Britain counterattacked Argentine forces.
  • 1984 – State Security Courts started to work in eight provinces.
  • 1985 – Tekel Cigarette Factory was established in Tokat.
  • 1988 – President Kenan Evren spoke in Rize: "They can personally tell me anything, but 'Operation September 12 should not have happened.' they can't say. They can't, because these people wanted it."
  • 1988 – socialist feminist Cactus magazine was launched. The authors of the magazine were Gülnur Savran, Nesrin Tura, Sedef Öztürk, Banu Paker, Şahika Yüksel, Aksu Bora, Nural Yasin, Ayşegül Berktay, Özden Dilber, Nalan Akdeniz, Fadime Tonak. The magazine published 1990 issues until September 12.
  • 1989 – A group of 1 people who wanted to march from Istiklal Street to Taksim to celebrate 2000 May in Istanbul was dispersed by the police. A young man named Mehmet Akif Dalcı, who was shot in the forehead during the events, died one day later. More than 400 demonstrators were detained.
  • 1990 – During the 1 May protests in various districts of Istanbul, 40 people were injured and 2 thousand people were detained. Gülay Beceren, one of the injured, was paralyzed.
  • 1991 – Vakıfbank launched the 'Maşallah' gold with a weight of 2 grams and a purity of 999.9 minted in Switzerland. Gold was offered for sale at Vakıfbank branches for 128 thousand liras.
  • 1993 - Bright magazine was founded.
  • 1994 – After celebrating 1 May in Istanbul and Ankara, the groups that dispersed were beaten by the police. Social Democratic Populist Party deputy Salman Kaya was also beaten by the police. Two days later, the 3 police officers who beat the deputy Salman Kaya and Ankara Police Chief Orhan Taşanlar were dismissed.
  • 1995 – Croatian Army launches Operation Bljesak to retake West Slavonia.
  • 1996 – Istanbul KadıköyThree people, Dursun Adabaş, Hasan Albayrak and Levent Yalçın, died in the events that broke out during the 1 May Labor Day celebrations in Turkey. A young man named Akın Rençber, a militant of the "Fourth Left Construction Organization", who was detained during the events, died on 3 May as a result of the torture he was subjected to.
  • 1999 – The Amsterdam Treaty enters into force.
  • 1999 – TRT website trt.net.tr started broadcasting.
  • 2000 – Turkish Air Force; received one AS 532 Cougar AL helicopter, the first attack, search and rescue helicopter, manufactured by the French company Eurocopter.
  • 2002 – In the case regarding the events that resulted in the death of 2 English fans before the football match between Galatasaray and Leeds United teams, the accused Ali Ümit Demir was sentenced to 15 years of heavy imprisonment and 6 defendants to 3 months and XNUMX days in prison.
  • 2003 – US President George W. Bush declared that the wars in Iraq were over.
  • 2003 – In the 6,4 magnitude earthquake that occurred in Bingöl; 176 people were killed and 521 injured.
  • 2004 – Ten countries joined the EU: Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia.
  • 2006 - Witnessed one of the largest strikes in US history. The immigration law was protested.
  • 2006 - The Government of Puerto Rico closes all Government establishments and schools due to financial difficulties.
  • 2008 – The tension between the labor unions that wanted to celebrate the 1 May Labor Day in Taksim Square in Turkey and the executive body that did not allow them was reflected on the streets. From 06:30 in the morning, the police intervened against the groups gathered in Şişli and its surroundings, with tear gas, gas bombs, batons, panzers, slingshots and painted water cannons. CHP deputy Mehmet Ali Özpolat had a heart spasm due to pepper spray. Many citizens, whether members of the organization or not, were hospitalized with serious injuries and suffered temporary disabilities. During the day, DISK gave up its Taksim target because it was afraid of people dying.
  • 2009 – After 31 years, a group of 5 thousand people officially went to Taksim for the 1 May celebrations with the DİSK organization.
  • 2009 – Cabinet revision was made in the 60th Government of the Republic of Turkey.
  • 2010 – After 32 years, 1 May celebrations were held for the first time in Taksim.
  • 2016 – A citizen named Nail Mavuș died as a result of being hit by a TOMA at around 11:00.

Births

  • 1672 – Joseph Addison, English essayist, poet, and politician (d. 1719)
  • 1769 Arthur Wellesley, British soldier and statesman (d. 1852)
  • 1825 – Johann Jakob Balmer, Swiss mathematician and mathematical physicist (d. 1898)
  • 1857 – Theo van Gogh, Dutch art dealer (d. 1891)
  • 1883 – Drastamat Kanayan, Russian soldier (d. 1956)
  • 1878 – Mehmet Kamil Berk, Turkish medical doctor (one of the doctors of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk) (d. 1958)
  • 1900 – Ignazio Silone, Italian writer (d. 1978)
  • 1908 – Giovanni Guareschi, Italian humorist and cartoonist (Don Camillocreator of ) (d. 1968)
  • 1909 – Yannis Ritsos, Greek poet (d. 1990)
  • 1910 – Behice Boran, Turkish politician and sociologist (d. 1987)
  • 1910 – Nejdet Sançar, Turkish educator and writer (d. 1975)
  • 1912 – Otto Kretschmer, captain in the German Navy (d. 1998)
  • 1915 – Mina Urgan, Turkish writer, philologist, professor and translator (d. 2000)
  • 1916 – Glenn Ford, American actor (d. 2006)
  • 1919 – Dan O'Herlihy, Irish actor (d. 2005)
  • 1923 – Joseph Heller, American satirist and short story writer (d. 1999)
  • 1925 – Gabriele Amorth, Italian priest and clergyman (d. 2016)
  • 1927 – Albert Zafy, Malagasy politician and 6th President of Madagascar (d. 2017)
  • 1931 – Mehmet Aslan, Turkish actor, screenwriter and director (d. 1987)
  • 1936 – Dilbar Abdurahmanonova, Soviet-Uzbek violinist and conductor (d. 2018)
  • 1941 – Asil Nadir, Cypriot businessman
  • 1941 – Nurhan Damcıoğlu, Turkish canto player, sound artist and theater and film actor
  • 1947 – Jacob Bekenstein, Mexican-born American-Israeli theoretical physicist and professor (d. 2015)
  • 1948 – Patricia Hill Collins, US sociologist and politician
  • 1953 – Necati Bilgiç, Turkish cinema and theater actor
  • 1954 – Ray Parker Jr., American singer and musician
  • 1954 – Menderes Samancılar, Turkish cinema and TV series actor
  • 1955 – Julie Pietri, French singer
  • 1956 – Coşkun Aral, Turkish international war photographer, traveler, journalist, adventurer, documentary maker
  • 1956 – Catherine Frot, French actress
  • 1958 – Hulki Cevizoğlu, Turkish journalist, writer and television host
  • 1959 – Yasmina Reza, French playwright, actress, novelist and screenwriter
  • 1961 – Ziya Selçuk, Turkish educator and Minister of National Education of the Republic of Turkey
  • 1962 – Maia Morgenstern, Romanian actress
  • 1962 – Yannis Saoulis, Greek singer, composer
  • 1963 – Erkan Mumcu, Turkish politician, former Minister of Culture and Tourism of the Republic of Turkey, former leader of the Motherland Party
  • 1964 – Birol Güven, Turkish film producer, screenwriter and director
  • 1966 – Olaf Thon, German football player and manager
  • 1967 – Tim McGraw, American country singer
  • 1968 – Oliver Bierhoff, German former football player
  • 1969 – Wes Anderson, American director, writer, and producer of short films, films, and commercials
  • 1971 – Didem Akın, Turkish basketball player and manager
  • 1971 – Hasret Gültekin, Turkish baglama virtuoso, singer, composer, lyricist and producer (d. 1993)
  • 1972 – Julie Benz, American actress
  • 1973 – İsmail Sancak, Turkish documentary director
  • 1973 – Oliver Neuville, German football player
  • 1975 – Marc-Vivien Foé, Cameroonian national football player (d. 2003)
  • 1975 – Murat Han, Turkish TV and movie actor
  • 1975 – Aleksey Smertin is a retired Russian football player.
  • 1978 – Orhan Ölmez, Turkish singer, composer, lyricist, arranger and presenter
  • 1980 – Dilek Celebi, Turkish theater actress
  • 1981 – Alyaksandr Hleb is a former Belarusian football player.
  • 1982 – Beto, Portuguese national goalkeeper
  • 1982 – Mark Farren, Irish former football player (b. 2016)
  • 1982 – Mehmet Muş, Turkish politician and economist
  • 1982 – Darijo Srna is a former Bosnian-born football player who played for the Croatian national football team.
  • 1983 – Alain Bernard, French swimmer
  • 1983 – Park Hae-jin is a South Korean actor
  • 1983 – Anna Litvinova, Russian top model (d. 2013)
  • 1984 – Mišo Brečko, former Slovenian international football player
  • 1984 – Alexander Farnerud, Swedish national football player
  • 1988 – Anushka Sharma, Indian actress and producer who acted in Bollywood movies
  • 1992 – Ahn Hee-yeon, better known by her stage name Hani, South Korean singer and actress
  • 1993 – Jean-Christophe Bahebeck, French national football player
  • 1994 – Ilkay Durmus, Turkish football player
  • 2004 – Charli D'Amelio, American social media personality and dancer who creates videos on TikTok

Deaths

  • 408 – Arcadius, Eastern Roman Emperor (b. 377/378)
  • 1118 – Matilda, Queen of England as first wife of King Henry I (b. 1080)
  • 1308 – Albrecht I, duke of Austria and Germanic emperor (b. 1255)
  • 1539 – Isabella of Portugal was consort empress and consort queen to her cousin, Holy Roman emperor Charles V, ruler of the Spanish Empire (b. 1503)
  • 1555 – Pope II. Marcellus was the Pope for a very short period of 5 days between April 1 and May 1555, 20 (b. 1501)
  • 1572 – Pius V, pope from 1566-1572 (b. 1504)
  • 1700 – John Dryden, English poet, critic, translator, and playwright (b. 1631)
  • 1731 – Johann Ludwig Bach, German composer and violinist (b. 1677)
  • 1813 – Jean-Baptiste Bessières, French marshal during the Napoleonic Era and military leader with the title of Duke in the First French Empire (b. 1768)
  • 1850 – Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville, French zoologist, herpetologist, and anatomist (b. 1777)
  • 1873 – David Livingstone, Scottish missionary and explorer (b. 1813)
  • 1899 – Ludwig Büchner, German thinker and writer (b. 1824)
  • 1904 – Antonín Dvořák, Czech late Romantic period composer of western classical music and violin and organ virtuoso (b. 1841)
  • 1920 – Margaret, Crown Princess of Sweden and Duchess of Scania (b. 1882)
  • 1937 – Eugene Doherty, Irish Cumann na nGaedheal politician (b. 1862)
  • 1945 – Joseph Goebbels, Nazi Germany politician and Minister of Propaganda (suicide) (b. 1897)
  • 1945 – Magda Goebbels, wife of Joseph Goebbels (b. 1901)
  • 1950 – Mammad Said Ordubadi, Azerbaijani writer, poet, playwright and journalist (b. 1872)
  • 1969 – İmran Öktem, Turkish lawyer and former President of the Supreme Court (b. 1904)
  • 1976 – Alexandros Panagulis, Greek politician and poet (b. 1939)
  • 1978 – Aram Khachaturian, Armenian-born Soviet composer (b. 1903)
  • 1979 – Morteza Motahhari, Iranian scholar, religious scholar, philosopher, university lecturer, and politician (b. 1920)
  • 1984 – Jüri Lossmann, Estonian long-distance runner (b. 1891)
  • 1988 – Altan Erbulak, Turkish cartoonist, actor and journalist (b. 1929)
  • 1993 – Pierre Bérégovoy, French politician and former Prime Minister (b. 1925)
  • 1994 – Ayrton Senna, Brazilian Formula 1 driver (b. 1960)
  • 2003 - Elizabeth Ann Hulette, Miss elizabeth American professional wrestler known by his first name (b. 1960)
  • 2010 – Helen Wagner, American actress (b. 1918)
  • 2012 – Cüneyt Türel, Turkish Theatre, cinema and TV series actor, voice actor (b. 1942)
  • 2013 – Kris Kross, a hip hop group formed in the USA in the early 1990s (b. 1978)
  • 2014 – Assi Dayan, Israeli producer, director, screenwriter, and actor (b. 1945)
  • 2015 – Dave Goldberg, American businessman (b. 1967)
  • 2015 – Grace Lee Whitney (birth name: Mary Ann Chase), American actress (b. 1930)
  • 2015 – Elizabeth Whittall, Canadian swimmer (b. 1936)
  • 2016 – Jean-Marie Girault, French politician and bureaucrat (b. 1926)
  • 2016 – Solomon W. Golomb, American mathematician and engineer (b. 1932)
  • 2016 – Madeleine LeBeau, French actress (b. 1923)
  • 2017 – Katy Bødtger, Danish female singer (b. 1932)
  • 2017 – Yisrael Friedman, Israeli rabbi and educator (b. 1923)
  • 2017 – Pierre Gaspard-Huit, French director and screenwriter (b. 1917)
  • 2018 – Javier Aller, Spanish actor (b. 1972)
  • 2018 – Elmar Altvater, German political scientist, academic and author (b. 1938)
  • 2018 – Max Berrú, Ecuadorian-Chilean singer and musician (b. 1942)
  • 2018 – Pavel Pergl, Czech former football player (b. 1977)
  • 2019 – Issa J. Boullata, Palestinian educator, translator, and author (b. 1928)
  • 2019 – Alessandra Panaro, Italian actress (b. 1939)
  • 2019 – Arvi Parbo, Estonian-born Australian businessman and executive (b. 1926)
  • 2019 – Beatrix Philipp, German politician (b. 1945)
  • 2020 – Allah Yar Ansar, Pakistani politician (b. 1943)
  • 2020 – Silvia Legrand, Argentine actress (b. 1927)
  • 2020 – África Lorente Castillo, Moroccan-born Spanish politician and activist (b. 1954)
  • 2020 – Antonina Rijova, Former Soviet volleyball player (b. 1934)
  • 2020 – Fernando Sandoval, Brazilian water polo player (b. 1942)
  • 2021 – Pieter Aspe, Belgian author known for a series of books (b. 1953)
  • 2021 – Olympia Dukakis, Oscar, BAFTA and Golden Globe winner, Greek-American actress (b. 1931)
  • 2021 – Helen Murray Free, American chemist, inventor, academic, and educator (b. 1923)
  • 2021 – Edy Lima, Brazilian writer and journalist (b. 1924)

Holidays and special occasions

  • 1 May Labor Day – Labor and Solidarity Day
  • Highway Safety and Traffic Week
  • IT Week

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