Ear Nose and Throat Specialist Op. Dr. Ali Değirmenci gave information about the subject. Tonsils (tonsils) and adenoids (adenoids) are organs called lymphoid tissue and play a role in the body's immune system. The tonsils are located at the entrance of the pharynx, on both sides of the tongue root. Adenoids, on the other hand, are located in the upper part of the pharynx, that is, in the back of the nasal cavity, called the nasopharynx. What is Tonsil and Adenoid? What are their Duties?
What is Tonsil and Adenoid? What are their Duties?
Tonsil and adenoid are part of lymphoid tissue and contain lymphocytes. These lymphocytes produce antibodies that help the body's immune system. However, the role of tonsils and adenoids in the immune system is not significant and most of the time they are not functional. The fact that there is no negative situation related to immunity in people whose tonsils and adenoids are taken shows this.
What Problems Do They Cause?
Tonsil and adenoid can cause both infections and some problems depending on their size. Although adenoid is mostly a problem of childhood, tonsil can cause disease in both children and adults.
Frequent infections both affect the daily life of the patient and cause frequent drug use. However, the most important consequences of past infections (inflammation) are that the heart valves, joints and kidneys are at risk.
Apart from infections, the size of tonsil and adenoid also leads to important results. Large tonsils; It causes swallowing, feeding and speech problems. In addition, food and tissue residues accumulated on the tonsil cause bad breath and hygiene disorders. The large size of the adenoid tissue, first of all, causes nasal congestion. In these patients, it causes sleep with the mouth open and snoring. The nose regulates the temperature and humidity of the inhaled air and traps some harmful particles. For this reason, it causes some respiratory problems in patients with mouth breathing.
Adenoid also creates the following problems:
- Aeration disorder in the middle ear and related ear collapse, hearing loss and communication disorder. Hearing loss is sometimes at a level that the parents cannot notice, but it is often the first reason that takes the patient to the doctor.
- Developmental disorder in jaw and facial bones
- Throat inflammation (pharyngitis), cough and lower respiratory tract problems due to post-nasal drip
- The 'retarded' image due to the facial expression formed
How Is It Treated?
In acute inflammations of the tonsils and adenoids, the treatment is usually drugs. The most common drugs as antibiotics, pain relievers and if allergic factors are considered antihistamines. Although tonsils and adenoids, which do not cause serious problems and do not cause frequent infections, are treated with drugs, sometimes tonsils and adenoids need to be removed.
In Which Situations Should It Be Taken?
Although it is sometimes easy to decide to remove the tonsil and adenoid, it sometimes requires following the patient for a certain period of time.
Conditions that lead to the decision to have surgery include:
- Frequent infections: The generally accepted situation is 3 or more infections per year in consecutive years.
- Although there is no infection in the tonsils, it is enlarged enough to make swallowing difficult.
- Unilateral enlargement of tonsillar tissue (as it may be a sign of lymphoma or other malignant diseases)
- Frequent accumulation on the tonsil that may cause bad breath
- Enlargement of adenoid tissue to impair breathing
- Middle ear inflammation (otitis media) and hearing loss
- Causes frequent sinusitis and lower respiratory tract problems