Pulse oximetry is one of the medical devices that can measure heart rate and blood oxygen level, record them when necessary, and give warnings with audible and visual alarms in case of emergency. Pulse oximeters are used to monitor the current health status of the patient. There are those that can be used as a separate device, as well as those that are available in the content of other devices. Bedside monitors are an example of this. All pulse oximeters measure by similar methods. It uses the amount of light that can pass through the tissue while measuring the oxygen in the blood. They are safe, painless and quick-resulting devices that can be used without the need to draw blood from the patient. There are differences between device types in terms of features such as measurement algorithm, sensor quality, battery and alarm. There are also some factors that negatively affect the use of devices. In order to be affected by these factors in the least way, a high quality pulse oximeter should be selected for the patient. Otherwise, the measurement results may be inaccurate. The patient's condition and needs should be determined in advance, and the most compatible pulse oximeter should be preferred, regardless of whether it is new or second-hand.
The working principle of pulse oximeters has been developed to benefit from the light passing through the tissues. There is a light source and a sensor on the sensor. The measurement is provided by placing organs such as fingers or earlobes between the sensor apparatus. The devices work by analyzing color according to whether the hemoglobin in red blood cells holds oxygen or not. The color tone of the blood changes depending on the amount of oxygen carried by the red blood cells. The color of the blood is used to determine the oxygen content. Oxygenated blood is bright red and absorbs most of the light sent from the pulse oximeter. The device sends red and infrared light on the one hand, and provides oxygen measurement thanks to the sensor on the other side. By measuring the amount of light reaching the opposite side, the oxygen saturation in the blood is detected and displayed on the device screen.
What are the Types of Pulse Oximeters?
If it is evaluated in terms of stable and error-free operation, it can be sorted as follows: Console type > wrist type > hand type > finger type
- Wrist Type Pulse Oximeter
- Handheld Pulse Oximeter
- Console Type Pulse Oximeter
- Finger Type Pulse Oximeter
What are the Features of Wrist Type Pulse Oximeters?
Wrist type pulse oximeters are generally used in very mobile patients. The device part is attached to the patient's wrist like a watch and the measurement sensor is fixed to the finger and connected to the device via a cable. Device and sensor even if the patient moves steadily stops and is not affected much by the movements of the patient. Since it is fixed on the patient's wrist, there is no risk of the device falling. It is suitable for both wrist and ankle use. Battery or battery operated models are available. There are also memory variants that can be used in sleep tests. Measurement records can be transferred to a computer by means of a special software. In addition, measurement parameters and graphics can be monitored instantly thanks to the device's screen. Wrist type devices have an advanced audible and visual alarm system. Both adult and children's models can be found on the market. It is one of the products preferred not only by patients but also by athletes.
What are the Features of Hand Held Pulse Oximeters?
Handheld pulse oximeters are relatively small compared to console type ones. They are devices that are large and heavy enough to be held in the hand. Battery or battery operated models are available. Most are battery powered and can be charged via adapter. It can be fixed next to the patient, by placing it on the table or hanging it on an IV pole. The measurement sensor is fixed to the finger and connected to the device via a cable. The devices have an advanced audio and visual alarm system. Both adult and children's models can be found on the market. Thanks to its screen, measurement parameters and graphics can be monitored instantly. The ones with memory can be connected to the computer via the software and the past records can be viewed on the computer.
What are the Features of Console Type Pulse Oximeters?
Console type pulse oximeters are slightly larger and heavier than others. Although this situation creates transportation difficulties, it provides some advantages. Most console type ones are battery powered. High battery capacity It can serve longer in power cuts and during transfer. The measurement quality is also better than other models. The measurement sensor is fixed to the finger and connected to the device via a cable. The devices have an advanced audio and visual alarm system. Both adult and children's models can be found on the market. Thanks to its screen, measurement parameters and graphics can be monitored instantly. The screen size is also large compared to the others. It can be connected to the computer by means of special software and historical records can be examined over the computer.
What are the Features of Finger Type Pulse Oximeters?
It is possible to find finger type pulse oximeters in the market at very reasonable prices. It is quite simple to use. These devices, which are 50-60 grams, usually work with batteries. Some models are battery powered and can be charged via the adapter. Most models keep their screen on when the battery or battery is dead. low power warning warns the user. There are also alarms for saturation and heart rate. It has a latch design that can be worn directly on the finger. Models suitable for adults and children are available in the market. Thanks to its screen, measurement parameters and graphics can be monitored instantly.
What are the Causes Affecting the Measurement Results?
All pulse oximeters measure with similar methods. Differences in devices are features such as measurement algorithm, sensor quality, battery and alarm. Use of devices Some factors that negatively affect has. A quality pulse oximeter should be preferred in order to be least affected by these. Otherwise, the measurements may be inaccurate. In such a case, problems such as unnecessary intervention to the patient or failure to intervene when a risky situation is in question may occur. The patient's vital functions may be compromised.
When supplying pulse oximeters, whether new or second-hand, first of all, the following conditions should be considered:
- Movement or shaking of the patient
- Cardiac changes
- Use on hairy or dyed skin
- The environment where the device is located is too hot or cold
- The patient's body is too hot or cold
- Device and sensor quality
The sensors of pulse oximeters are produced according to the standards of some brands. Therefore, the probe (sensor) should be selected according to the socket design and measurement technology. mostly on the market “Nellcor” ve “Masimo” technologies of the brands are used. Probes should be selected to be compatible with these brands. When a sensor that is not suitable for the device is used, the measurement results will be erroneous. Nellcor compatible sensors should be used for devices using Nellcor compatible measurement technology, and Masimo compatible sensors should be used for devices using Masimo compatible measurement technology. Not every sensor is suitable for every device.
Pulse oximeters are available in battery or battery powered models. Hand-held, wrist-type and console-type ones are generally battery powered. Some models of this type of products may have batteries. There are even devices that run on both batteries and batteries. In fact, some pulse oximeters have features such as blood pressure or thermometer. These features are usually found on console-type devices.
Finger type pulse oximeters can be supplied at the most affordable price. Wrist-type and hand-held devices are very close to each other and are higher than finger-type devices. Console type ones are generally more expensive than all of them. Some cantilever pulse oximeters may be more affordable than wrist and handheld ones, depending on the brand and country of manufacture of the devices.
2nd hand pulse oximeter If it is to be preferred, first of all, it should be checked whether it is compatible with the patient and whether it meets the medical needs of the patient. The status of its accessories and battery should be questioned, and a guaranteed device with spare parts should be selected. Companies that can provide spare parts and service should be preferred in case of problems that may occur in the future.
Almost all of the conditions to be considered for humans also apply to pulse oximeters used by veterinarians for animals.