Risk Factors in Cervical Cancer

Risk Factors in Cervical Cancer
Risk Factors in Cervical Cancer

Explaining the risk factors for cervical cancer, Dr. from Medipol Esenler University Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Instructor Member Emine Zeynep Yılmaz said, “Advanced age, low socioeconomic status, low education level, multiple sexual partners in spouses, early first intercourse, smoking, diet low in vitamin C, early first gestational age, sexually transmitted diseases, overweight, family could be considered a story. Cervical cancer does not occur suddenly, but over the years due to cell changes in the precursor lesions over time. While these lesions disappear in some women, they progress in others.” said.

Stating that the precursor lesions do not show signs before they turn into cancer, Dr. Instructor Member Emine Zeynep Yılmaz said that when the disease turns into cancer, there may be bloody, foul-smelling discharge, bleeding during sexual intercourse or during menstruation, menstrual bleeding that lasts longer than normal, spotting in the form of broth or pain during intercourse.


Stating that cervix problems do not show signs before they turn into cancer, Yılmaz said, “It is life-saving for all women who have started their sexual life to have the smear test, which is completed in a few seconds, in terms of early diagnosis. Since cervical cancer, one of the most common causes of cancer deaths in women, is caused by 99 percent of the HPV virus, HPV vaccination should not be neglected. used the phrases.

Emphasizing that all cervical cancers can be prevented to a large extent through screening and treatment, Yılmaz said, “In order to prevent this cancer, gynecologist examination and smear test should be done regularly, and risk factors should be avoided. As a precaution, it may be necessary to quit smoking, lose weight, eat a balanced diet, reduce the number of sexual partners and use condoms in doubtful cases.

Explaining that the smear test helps detect cell irregularities, precancerous lesions and infections in the cervix, Yılmaz said:

“In this way, lesions that can turn into cervical cancer are detected at an early stage. While performing the smear test, the cervix is ​​observed with the examination instrument called speculum and a swab is taken from the cervix with the help of a brush. This process is painless and takes 5-10 seconds on average. The material taken is sent to pathology and examined. The smear test should be done to every woman who has started her sexual life after the age of 21. In addition, the HPV test, which is known as the cause of 99 percent of cervical cancer, can be added as an additional test after the age of 30 or in patients with ASCUS as a smear result.

Noting that a negative smear test indicates that it is not a disease, Yılmaz stated that the remaining cell abnormalities, that is, if the smear test is positive, are evaluated by your doctor and a section of the cervix such as a repeat smear, biopsy from the cervix, or LEEP/conization may be requested for further examination. .

Mild abnormalities also require close follow-up

Stating that there was a long and difficult treatment process after the diagnosis of cervical cancer, Yılmaz concluded his words as follows;

“Slight abnormalities detected in the smear test sometimes resolve spontaneously depending on the person's structure, but they definitely require close follow-up. In advanced lesions, with the help of a large microscope-like instrument called colposcopy of the cervix, the lesions are detected and a larger disease is detected with biopsy. If necessary, precursor lesions should be removed from the cervix. These procedures can be defined as removing some pieces from the cervix called LEEP or conization. Nevertheless, patients should continue their annual smear follow-up. However, thanks to the smear, the disease is prevented by treating the early lesions before they go to the cancer stage.”

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