Obesity and Metabolic Surgery Specialist Op. Dr. Elnur Huseynov gave important information on the subject. Obesity is a chronic disease that occurs as a result of excessive accumulation of fat in the body. Obesity is not just a cosmetic disorder. Heart disease is a medical condition that increases the risk of other diseases and health problems, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain cancers. There are many reasons why some people have trouble losing weight. Obesity is often the result of hereditary, physiological, and environmental factors combined with diet, physical activity, and exercise options. The good news is that even a slight weight loss can improve or prevent obesity-related health problems. A healthier diet, increased physical activity, and behavioral changes can help you lose weight.
How do we diagnose obesity?
Obesity is diagnosed with BMI (Body Mass Index). Calculation: It is calculated as the patient's weight divided by the square meter of the height.
Causes of obesity;
Although there are genetic, behavioral, metabolic and hormonal effects on body weight, obesity occurs when you consume more calories than you burn through normal daily activities and exercise. Your body stores these excess calories as fat. Most people's diets are very high in calories (fast food and high-calorie drinks). People with obesity may eat more calories before feeling full, feel hungry more quickly, or eat more because of stress or anxiety.
Even daily activities use fewer calories, thanks to conveniences like remote controls, escalators, online shopping, and pass-through banks.
What are the health threats of obesity? Can it cause sudden death?
Increased sugar, cholesterol, and other substances in the blood may precipitate into the veins and cause serious atherosclerosis in our heart, which can cause sudden death.
When should a doctor be consulted?
If you are concerned about your weight or weight-related health problems, ask your doctor about obesity management. You and your doctor can assess your health risks and discuss your weight loss options.
What are surgical obesity treatments?
There are 3 types of surgery in bariatric surgery: volume-limiting (restrictive), malabsorptive, mixed (volume-limiting and absorption-impairing).
Sleeve gastrectomy (Tubular stomach)
Today, Sleeve Gastrectomy is the gold standard in our country and worldwide and is the most frequently preferred method. However, the most appropriate method for the patient is decided by the surgery. In a normal person, the stomach volume is around 1-1.5 L. With gastric sleeve surgery, a large part of the stomach (80-90%) is removed and approximately 150-200 ml of stomach volume is left. In this way, food intake is restricted, and the production of hunger hormone (Ghrelin) is reduced and satiety is provided for a long time.
Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass
It is a mixed bariatric surgery that consists of reducing the stomach volume and bypassing a portion of the small intestine. By bypassing the small intestine, the absorption surface of nutrients is reduced, and the stomach volume is also reduced, resulting in a decrease in appetite, a decrease in food intake, and thus weight loss occurs.
Mini Gastric Bypass
Mini gastric bypass, similar to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, is a type of surgery that is both volume-reducing and malabsorptive. Therefore, its mechanism is to reduce food intake and reduce the absorption of consumed nutrients. Unlike Roux-en-Y gastric byass, a single anastomosis (joining) point is created between the stomach and the intestine in mini gastric bypass.
Which patients are surgical methods applied to?
It can be applied to people with a BMI value above 35 kg/m2 and those with co-morbidities.
How much weight is lost on average with these methods?
Although it varies according to the type of surgical method, more than 10% of body weight (average 14-16 kg) is lost in the first month. In 6 months - 1 year, patients generally reach their ideal weight.