Üsküdar University NPİSTANBUL Brain Hospital Language and Speech Therapist Ayşegül Yılmaz evaluated cleft lip and palate. Cleft lip and palate, defined as an opening in only the upper lip, only the palate, or both, negatively affects the growth and development of the baby. Stating that cleft repair is done with surgical interventions, experts said, "Hearing, language, speech and nutrition disorders can be seen in those with cleft lip and palate." warns.
Occurs in the third month of pregnancy
Stating that cleft lip and palate (DDY) is an opening in only the upper lip, only the palate or both, Speech and Language Therapist Ayşegül Yılmaz said, “The structures of the lip in the second month of pregnancy and the palate in the third month of pregnancy unite. In cases where this union does not occur properly, cleft lip, cleft palate or cleft lip-palate occur. There are anatomically all structures in DDY, but these structures are not fused as they should be and are smaller than they should normally be.” said.
Smoking and alcohol use can be effective
Language and Speech Therapist Ayşegül Yılmaz said, “Although the exact cause of cleft lip and palate is not known, it is caused by genetic and environmental factors (especially in the first trimester of pregnancy, smoking/alcohol use, exposure to viruses, some drugs used, etc.) and sometimes it occurs due to a syndrome. ” he said.
Hearing, language, speech and nutrition disorders can be seen
Stating that cleft lip and/or palate clefts are repaired with surgical interventions, Yılmaz said, “Hearing, language, speech and nutritional disorders can be seen in those with cleft lip and palate. Speech and language therapists play a role in monitoring feeding and swallowing in infants with CLP from the very first moment. It follows the development of communication, language and speech in the future and intervenes in the problems that may be seen in these areas.” he said.
Pay attention to feeding problems
Expressing that the first area to be addressed in a baby with NDD is nutrition, Speech and Language Therapist Ayşegül Yılmaz said, “Babies may have difficulty grasping the breast or bottle, and may not be able to provide the intraoral pressure necessary for sucking. The milk or food taken during feeding may get into the baby's nose, and they may swallow more air while feeding. Babies who are fed in an inappropriate position may have problems with the middle ear. warned.
Baby's growth may be affected
Stating that babies who have difficulty in sucking take a long time to feed, they spend the energy they receive while feeding with effort, Yılmaz said, “These problems may affect the baby's weight gain and growth. In order to ensure the growth and development of the baby, it is important to regulate the feeding position, duration and frequency and to choose the appropriate feeding equipment. In some cases, feeding apparatuses that will close the cleft and regulate suction and nutrition until the surgery, or palate-nose shaping apparatus used to reduce the width of the cleft and shape the nose are also applied. he said.
Language and speech problems may occur
Speech and Language Therapist Ayşegül Yılmaz said that in the absence of an additional disability/syndrome, middle ear infection, and hearing loss, no delay in language development is expected in individuals with DDY.
Pointing out that speech sounds may be produced incorrectly due to anatomical differences in children who have not undergone palate repair, Language and Speech Therapy Specialist Ayşegül Yılmaz said:
“It is seen that speech sounds continue after palate repair due to anatomical problems or incorrect learning. In the production of speech sounds, the soft palate and the posterior and lateral walls of the pharynx act together, directing the air from the lungs to the mouth or nose for sound formation.
When this mechanism does not work properly in individuals with DDY, air escapes into the nose in the sounds that should come out of the mouth. In this case, the speech becomes nasal. Due to the inability to provide sufficient pressure for the formation of sounds in the mouth, due to the extraction of speech sounds from the posterior regions (larynx) and cleft in the roof of the mouth, faulty production is observed. It is among the disorders that can be seen that the sounds that should come out of the nose as a result of stenosis or blockages in the nasal cavity resemble mouth sounds.
Speech therapy priority in functional disorders
Noting that the priority for speech disorders arising from anatomical structures is surgical intervention, while speech therapy is the priority for functional disorders, Yılmaz said, “Language and speech therapists follow individuals with CLP from infancy to adulthood. While providing support in the form of nutritional interventions and family information in the early period, they perform one-to-one therapies in the future.” he said.