The Most Important Risk Factor in Lung Cancer Tobacco Use

The Most Important Risk Factor in Lung Cancer
The Most Important Risk Factor in Lung Cancer
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It is the most common type of cancer in men and women worldwide, and it is also the most lethal cancer. Worldwide, approximately 2 million people are diagnosed with new lung cancer every year, and 1.7 million people die from lung cancer. For this reason, November is accepted as "Lung Cancer Awareness Month" all over the world and in our country. It should not be forgotten that it is possible to reduce the frequency of this cancer with awareness first as an individual and then as a society.

Lung Cancer is the most common type of cancer worldwide

It is the most common type of cancer in men and women worldwide, and it is also the most lethal cancer. Worldwide, approximately 2 million people are diagnosed with new lung cancer every year, and 1.7 million people die from lung cancer. For this reason, November is accepted as "Lung Cancer Awareness Month" all over the world and in our country. It should not be forgotten that it is possible to reduce the frequency of this cancer with awareness first as an individual and then as a society.

Yeni Yüzyıl University Gaziosmanpaşa Hospital, Department of Oncology, Assoc. Dr. Suna Çokmert gave information about 'lung cancer treatment methods' within the scope of Lung Cancer Awareness Month.

There is no effective screening method for this type of cancer yet, and tobacco control is the main and most effective tool in the fight against lung cancer; Our National Tobacco Control Program, developed in this context, aims to protect all individuals in the society from the health, economic, environmental and social harms of tobacco products.

The most important factor causing lung cancer is tobacco use.

Lung cancer is a progressive disease that occurs with the uncontrolled proliferation of cells that make up normal lung tissue. The most important factor that drives normal lung cells to multiply uncontrollably is tobacco use. Studies show that 90 percent of lung cancers occur due to the use of tobacco and its products; The risk of developing cancer increases with the number of cigarettes smoked per day, the duration of smoking, the age of early onset, the amount of deep smoke and the amount of tar. It is known that there are more than 4000 chemicals and more than 70 cancer-causing substances in cigarette smoke. Passive exposure to cigarette smoke also increases the risk of lung cancer. The risk of developing lung cancer increases by 20-30% in people who are passively exposed to smoke in their homes or workplaces, although they do not smoke. Long-term and excessive daily use of tobacco and tobacco products (such as cigarettes, pipes, cigars, hookahs) prevents the function of the P53 gene, which prevents the genes that direct the cell to proliferate, from functioning, and the cells multiply uncontrollably and form a tumoral mass in the lung tissue. Other causes of lung cancer include occupational (asbestos, heavy metals) and environmental exposures (passive smoking, radon). Less than 10 percent of lung cancer patients have never smoked in their life and the disease occurs due to some genetic factors.

The risk rises to 30 percent in heavy smokers.

Current smokers have a higher incidence of new lung cancer than those who have never smoked or have quit smoking. While the risk increases to 30 percent in heavy smokers, the risk of developing lung cancer in a non-smoker is less than 1 percent. With the cessation of smoking, the risk of developing cancer begins to decrease rapidly. 10 years after quitting smoking, the risk of lung cancer appears to be reduced by 50 percent. It should also be kept in mind that this risk will never regress to the graphic feature of a non-smoker. In the case of smoking cessation, the probability of lung cancer decreases over time and approaches the level of never-smokers 10-20 years after quitting smoking.

The average survival rate in lung cancer patients diagnosed at an early stage is 70 percent.

Diagnosis at an early stage is very important in the treatment of lung cancer because the survival rate of patients with lung cancer diagnosed at an early stage is 70 percent on average. However, unfortunately, we may not be able to recognize this cancer until the tumor grows and presses on an organ or opens to the trachea or metastasizes to another organ. In the advanced stage, survival rates are very low. It usually causes symptoms and complaints in the form of cough, sputum, bloody sputum, chest pain, back pain, and increased shortness of breath. Recurrent or persistent lung infections such as bronchitis or pneumonia, hoarseness, loss of appetite, weakness, fatigue and weight loss should warn us about seeing a doctor.

The simplest method in the diagnosis of lung cancer is chest x-ray, and a computerized tomography is performed in patients with a mass in the lung, and it is decided how to reach the mass. Either under the guidance of tomography or with a thin bendable tube, which we call bronchoscopy, the patient's lung is reached and a piece is taken with a needle. This procedure is called a biopsy. PET CT can be done to learn the stage of the disease.

The treatment modality of each patient should be evaluated with a multidisciplinary study.

The treatment plan in lung cancer varies according to the type and stage of the tumor; Treatment options such as surgical removal of tumor tissue, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are decided according to the stage of the disease and the general condition of the patient. The treatment of each patient differs; In the treatment decision, more than one factor should be evaluated with a multidisciplinary study and the ideal treatment should be determined for the patient.

In recent years, scientific studies on mutations responsible for tumor development in lung cancer have accelerated. kazanTargeted therapies for the current mutation in the tumor have significantly increased survival rates. In addition to all these, immunotherapy treatments that increase the immune system's ability to fight tumors, as in many types of cancer, have started to enable us to offer a successful treatment option to our patients, both in combination with chemotherapy and alone.

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