Various types and sizes of tires are developed so that vehicles can move comfortably, safely and economically. Details such as the number of grooves, the hardness of the dough or the tread depth determine the usage areas of the tires. However, when buying tires, you must first pay attention to the dimensions, all of which are determined by international standards. What are the Types of Vehicle Tires? What are Vehicle Tire Sizes? Tire Prices How Much? Does Tire Choice Affect Fuel Efficiency? What Do the Symbols Mean on Car Tires? How Long Is a Vehicle Tire Life?
What are Vehicle Tire Sizes?
Car tire sizes are clearly written in the car's booklets. For example, in the brochure of Kia Sportage, you will see the phrases 225/60R17 and 245/45R19 under the "Tires" heading.
The dimensions in the tire sizes in order are as follows:
● The first part refers to the section width of the tire. In other words, it is the length from the lateral surface, which is called the cheek, to the other lateral surface, and you can see that it is also called the width from the outside to the outside. The section width of the tires in our example is 225 and 245 millimeters.
● The second part is the ratio of tire section to tire width. For tires in our example, the ratio is 60% and 45%. So the first tire has an aspect ratio of 225% of the 60, and the second tire has an aspect ratio of 245% of the 45.
● The R in the third part indicates that the tire is radial. In the design called radial, there is a special composite material in which a kind of textile and metal type threads are used. As they can create very high resistance, both road and passenger safety are increased and the deformation process of the wheels is shortened. The tires in our example are both radial, as they are marked "R".
● The last part represents the rim width. The first tire in the example is compatible with 17” and the second tire is compatible with 19” rims.
You do not need to know all these expressions by heart. If you tell the dealers selling tires the rates written in the vehicle booklet or go to the internet sites, suitable tire options are offered. Some common tire sizes in Turkey are as follows:
14 inch 15 inch 16 inch 17 inch 19 inch
175/65R14 175/60R15 185/55R16 205/45R17 155/70R19
175/70R14 175/65R15 185/55R16 205/50R17 175/60R19
185/60R14 185/55R15 195/45R16 205/55R17 245/45R19
185/65R14 185/60R15 195/50R16 215/40R17 –
185/70R14 185/65R15 195/55R16 215/45R17 –
– 185/65R15 195/60R16 225/60R17 –
– 185/65R15 205/45R16 – –
– 195/55R15 205/50R16 – –
– 195/60R15 – – –
You can look at the value next to the radial, or by looking at the inch value at the top of the table, you can see the version that is suitable for your car's rim size.
Tire Prices How Much?
Since there are many different materials in the tire, there may be changes in prices due to changes in raw material prices. Tire prices in Turkey can range from 700 TL to 4.000 TL.
Vehicle tire fees; It may vary depending on the quality and amount of materials used in the tire, the type of tire and the type of tire.
Finally, just because car tire prices are high or low doesn't necessarily mean the tire is bad or good. For example, a 215/40R17 tire, which is sold at relatively high prices, may perform much worse in summer conditions than a 215/40R17 tire, which is quite affordable. Because winter tires can be expensive and the dough on them is not manufactured for summer conditions.
For this reason, one of the criteria you should pay attention to when choosing tires is price, but it is not the only determinant.
What are the Types of Vehicle Tires?
Tires used in passenger cars; We can divide them into 3 as summer, winter and seasonal tires. All 3 types of tires have their own fundamental differences. Thanks to these differences, they enable you to grip the road better and have a safe driving experience. First of all, let's start by explaining the seasonal tires, which are among the most preferred tires.
What is Seasonal Tire?
The type of tire, called seasonal or all-season vehicle tire, is designed to be used at any time of the year. It is resistant to low and high air temperatures as its dough is specially manufactured. They don't freeze as quickly when temperatures drop like summer tyres, or don't show extra softness in hot weather like winter tyres.
Since they can be used in almost all cities of our country, they are preferred quite often. Since they are designed to adapt to all seasons in terms of their 4-season car tire characteristics, they can be used all year round. In this way, it also saves the drivers from the extra tire storage and storage costs.
The downsides are that when the air temperatures increase too much, they cause much more fuel consumption than summer tires. In addition, when it snows, they do not exhibit as high grip as winter tires.
What are Winter Tires?
The type of tire, which is called winter and winter car tires, has a very soft dough. In this way, they can easily warm up even in cold weather. Thus, they allow you to drive without encountering problems such as freezing.
The grooves and teeth on them are quite deep. In this way, they hold on to the ground very firmly in almost all rainy weather conditions, including snowfall. It is also recommended to be used when the air temperatures drop below 10 degrees. Because at lower air temperatures than this value, other tires hold on to the ground less because they have a harder paste.
What is a Summer Tire?
They are hard rubber tires and are resistant to hot weather. In cities where the air temperatures are very high, it is recommended to prefer seasonal or winter tires. Because seasonal and winter tires, with their soft rubber in hot weather, hold on to the ground much more and prevent the vehicle from operating at the desired performance.
The grooves and treads of summer tires are both small and short. Therefore, it is not suitable for rainy and cold weather. It is recommended not to be used especially in cases where the air temperatures fall below 10 degrees.
Does Tire Choice Affect Fuel Efficiency?
One of the most important issues to consider when buying tires is fuel consumption. Because using winter tires in summer or using summer tires in winter does not only endanger your driving safety. At the same time, values such as the number of wheel turns change as the vehicle clings to the ground too much or too little, and fuel consumption increases significantly.
In fact, considering that tires can be used for several years, it may even be a more expensive solution to not buy tires if models that reduce fuel efficiency too much are preferred.
What Do the Labels and Symbols on Car Tires Mean?
Vehicle tire properties are determined by labels and symbols. Types of car tires, such as all-season tires or winter tires, can be easily identified by the symbols and labels on them. Winter tires have a snowflake in the mountain and the M+S symbols. These markings show that the tire is resistant to winter conditions, snow and mud. However, these symbols may also appear on some types of all-season tires.
Apart from this, other symbols you should pay attention to when buying tires are letters. The letters indicate the speed index of the tire you will buy. The speed in km/h in the speed index gives the ideal maximum speed of the tyre. It is not recommended to constantly move above this value. The letters and speed indices are listed as follows:
|Speed Index||Ideal Speed (km/h)|
In addition, another thing you should know about the speed index is that these values may differ from the maximum value that your vehicle can reach. For example, 270 km/h is a suitable speed in the W speed index. However, your vehicle may be electronically limited to 250 km/h.
How is Tire Selection Made According to Regulations?
There are some restrictions on tires according to laws and regulations. It is very important that you choose tires by complying with these restrictions. The first issue with restrictions is tire tread depth.
Tire tread depth of vehicles should be at least 1,6 mm according to regulations. Tires below this depth are considered defective by law. In vehicle inspections carried out by TÜVTÜRK, tires are also checked and the required depth is expected. If the vehicle does not have the required tire tread depth, it is deemed to be seriously defective and cannot pass inspection.
There are two different methods to learn the tire tread depth. The first of these is the lines offered by some brands. The tread depth lines, which are easily recognizable such as red or yellow, allow you to find out if the depth of the vehicle tire is below the legal limits.
The second is a special measuring device called the tire tread depth guide. You can find out if the part of the apparatus, which is smaller than the credit card, showing millimeters, is under the legal limit by inserting it into the tread of the tire. Generally, these apparatuses are offered as giveaways in tire shops and they are given as gifts if you buy tires.
Another issue related to tires is the application of winter tires. Winter tires are mandatory for all intercity passenger and freight vehicles between 1 December and 1 April each year. In addition, the administrative chiefs of some provinces and districts may extend this period. For this reason, it is recommended to follow the statements made by the district governorships and governorships.
How Long Is a Vehicle Tire Life?
One of the most important issues to consider when buying tires is tire life. The elastic material, which covers a significant part of the tires and which we call dough, remains at its ideal hardness value for 10 years. This period is also called shelf life and it is not recommended to be used after this period.
The service life of the tires is extended up to 100 thousand kilometers. But the average value is usually 80 thousand kilometers. In other words, if we take Turkey as a basis, the tire will have moved away from its ideal values in a period of 4 years. For this reason, it is recommended not to be used without checking.
Does Tire Affect Brake Performance?
As long as you make sure that you choose the appropriate tire options when purchasing vehicle tires, you will not have any problems in terms of braking performance. If the tire is of the ideal size and designed according to the seasonal conditions, your braking distance cannot be extended. So you can travel safely.
On the contrary, problems such as skidding may occur in case of sudden braking in corners-like areas due to reasons such as excessive grip on the ground, along with the extension of your braking distance.
Is It Recognizable When Receiving Tire Noise?
Tire noise is a noise similar to the noise made by parts such as side mirrors or spoilers. Especially on long roads, the noise gets louder and can reduce driving comfort. In general, this noise is called road noise.
The source of the noise made by the tires is contact with the ground. Today, tires are designed to reduce road noise. However, it is not possible to understand their noise without trying the tires or seeing how it works on similar vehicles. For this reason, we recommend that you read user reviews before buying tires.
New Tire or Used Tire?
Since the prices of new car tires are quite high, there has been an increase in the demand for second-hand car tires in recent years. However, it is recommended that drivers do not turn to used car tires unless they have to. Because the life of the tires is a maximum of 10 years anyway. Of course, this value is the shelf life, as we mentioned above. In case of use, tires usually wear out in 3-4 years. For this reason, you may need to renew the second-hand tires you will buy in a short time.