Pregnant women need a regular, adequate and balanced diet for the formation and development of the baby. Stating that the need for fluid increases during pregnancy, experts emphasize that liquid drinks such as water, buttermilk and fruit juice should be consumed. Experts; states that the consumption of green leafy vegetables consumed during pregnancy, and foods rich in folic acid such as orange juice, hazelnuts and beans are not enough to meet the increasing need, and recommends starting folic acid supplementation in the first 3 months and vitamin D supplementation from the 12th week. Experts also point out that foods such as unpasteurized milk and dairy products, raw or undercooked eggs and processed meat products should not be consumed during pregnancy.
Üsküdar University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Midwifery. Faculty Member Tuğba Yılmaz Esencan and Lecturer Günay Arslan drew attention to the importance of mother and baby nutrition during pregnancy and made recommendations.
Nutrition should be maximized
Emphasizing the importance of nutrition during pregnancy, Dr. Faculty Member Tuğba Yılmaz Esencan said, “A living thing develops in the womb during this period. Pregnant women need a regular, adequate and balanced diet for the formation and development of the baby. One of the most important conditions for the physical and mental development of the fetus in the womb is the mother's healthy nutrition. With the progression of pregnancy, basal metabolism increases by 20% of normal. For this reason, in order to protect mother and baby health, the nutritional level should be maximized not only during pregnancy but also from the pre-pregnancy period and the need for necessary nutrients should be met. said.
Malnutrition causes serious problems
Esencan said, “Inadequate nutrition can lead to problems such as anemia in pregnancy, low birth weight and growth retardation in the fetus, as well as an increase in serious risks such as maternal disease and stillbirth during pregnancy. The fact that it causes such serious problems causes one more emphasis on nutrition during pregnancy.' said.
Dr. Faculty Member Tuğba Yılmaz Esencan mentioned the positive effects that will occur when the expectant mother is fed in a varied, adequate and healthy way during pregnancy;
The risk of chronic health problems is reduced,
Necessary stores for breastfeeding are provided,
Maternal health is protected,
The rate of encountering birth difficulties decreases,
The baby is born at a healthy weight,
The physical and mental development of the baby is ensured.
Nutritional supplements can be used under expert control
Esencan stated that while pregnant women require an additional energy intake of 200-300 calories per day, the need for vitamins and minerals increases by 20-100 percent.
“It is normal for a woman to gain 9 to 14 kilograms during pregnancy. Weight gain of 3-1 kilograms in the first 4 months of pregnancy, 3-4 kilograms in the second 6 months and 3-5 kilograms in the third 7 months is quite ideal. Nutritional supplements are products that contain vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates and proteins in addition to the nutrients that the individual takes daily and should be taken in line with the individual's needs and the recommendation of health professionals. Nutritional supplements can be used in pregnant women with the control of health professionals. In fact, it would be more accurate to follow an individualized, individualized nutrition program during pregnancy rather than a general nutritional supplement. But at this stage, especially the use of folic acid is very important for the development of the newborn's brain and protection from the risk of neural tube defects. The need for folic acid during pregnancy is necessary for the growth of the developing baby in the womb, the expansion of the uterus, the development of the placenta and the increase of the mother's red blood cells. It is definitely known that folic acid is protective against the risk of miscarriage, the risk of premature birth, low birth weight and growth failure of the unborn baby.”
Vitamin D supplementation should be started in the 12th week.
Emphasizing that consuming foods rich in folic acid such as green leafy vegetables, orange juice, nuts and beans during pregnancy is not enough to meet the increased need during pregnancy, Dr. For this reason, the Ministry of Health in our country recommends that women who are planning pregnancy should be given 0.4 milligrams of folic acid supplementation in addition to nutrition, starting from the pre-pregnancy period, and that this support should be continued during the first three months of pregnancy in order to protect their babies from the risk of neural tube defects. In addition, the Ministry of Health has started a program to prevent vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy. According to this program, it is recommended to start vitamin D supplementation from the 12th week of pregnancy and continue for 6 months after delivery. Nine drops of vitamin D are also recommended to be taken in a single daily dose for pregnant women and postpartum women in the prenatal period. said.
Here are the foods that should not be consumed during pregnancy…
Esencan, who recommends paying attention to foods that should not be consumed much during pregnancy, said, “Oil fish and canned tuna should not be eaten more than 2 times a week. Products such as coffee, tea and cola, which are rich in caffeine, should not be consumed above 200 mg per day. The most important item that I can recommend to pregnant women is to go to regular pregnancy follow-ups and to progress with a midwife on this special journey. Stating that the foods that should not be consumed during pregnancy should be known, Dr. Faculty Member Esencan listed these foods as follows;
Unpasteurized milk and dairy products,
Moldy, soft and unpasteurized cheese and similar products
Raw or undercooked eggs and mayonnaise, cream and ice cream prepared with these eggs,
Raw or undercooked meat
Processed meats such as salami, sausage and pastrami,
Salty foods such as excess salt, pickles and pickled olives,
Oily foods and fries,
Corrupted and moldy food stored in unsanitary conditions,
Shellfish such as mussels, oysters and shrimp
Raw or undercooked seafood such as sushi
Alcohol, sweets and candies,
Ready meals containing dyes and additives such as ketchup, oralet, instant soup.
Günay Arslan: “Folic acid intake in the first 3 months reduces the risk of anomalies”
Instructor Günay Arslan stated that although energy and weight gain during pregnancy are important indicators in terms of nutrition, adequate and balanced nutrition is more important than calorie intake. affects the need for daily energy and nutrients. During pregnancy, the need for fluids also increases. For this reason, fluid intake such as water, ayran, fruit juice should be provided. Nutrition during pregnancy affects the growth and development of the fetus and its health in the postpartum period. For example, folic acid intake in the first 3 months of pregnancy reduces the risk of fetal brain development and anomalies such as neural tube defects in the newborn. For this reason, it would be useful to recommend that individuals who plan to become pregnant should have general blood tests done in the pre-pregnancy period and become pregnant after any deficiency or insufficiency is compensated. he said.