Although it affects human life so much, sepsis, which is not known enough, is the cause of death of a person in 2,8 seconds. Intensive Care Specialist Prof. Dr. Sibel Temür pointed out that if the focus of infection is not treated, not only people with weak immunity, but also healthy people, sepsis and even septic shock, which develops organ failure that spreads to the whole body through blood, may develop. What is sepsis? What are the Symptoms of Sepsis? What are the sepsis treatment methods?
Sepsis, a very important health problem with infection and organ failure, is the deadliest of all hospitalizations. Stating that 11 million people die every year in the world due to this disease, which can occur in every age group, Intensive Care Specialist Prof. Dr. Sibel Temür said, “Every year, 47-50 million people develop sepsis in the world and 2,8 person dies from sepsis in an average of 1 seconds. About 50 percent of the survivors develop a lifelong physical or psychological disorder.
“INSUFFICIENT AWARENESS MAKES DIAGNOSIS DIFFICULT”
Pointing out that the diagnosis and treatment of sepsis is a very difficult problem and the incidence of the disease increases by 9 percent every year, Yeditepe University Hospitals Anesthesiology and Reanimation Department, Intensive Care Specialist Prof. Dr. Sibel Temür gave the following information on the subject: “Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by an abnormal and excessive immune response of the host against any infection. It is the combination of infection and organ failure. When an infection that starts as a focus in the body is not treated, it can progress and spread through the blood system, causing damage and organ failure in various organ systems with findings involving the whole body. Therefore, every infection has a risk of turning into sepsis.”
Stating that the diagnosis of the disease can be made with clinical and laboratory findings, Prof. Dr. Sibel Temür continued her words as follows: “Since organ failure and infection coexist in sepsis, the findings may also change. In some cases, signs of infection and sometimes organ failure may come to the fore. For this reason, it should be evaluated whether there is organ failure in cases where infection is at the forefront. Sepsis is diagnosed with clinical and laboratory findings. Clinical findings of infection; While there may be systemic findings such as speech disorder, confusion, fever, chills, muscle pain, inability to urinate, severe respiratory distress, feeling of death, mottling and pallor on the skin, the findings of the infection focus may be more prominent. In the septic shock picture, we see that the patient's blood pressure is very low, his pulse is irregular, circulation is deteriorated, and tissue oxygenation is reduced to hypoxia."
“SEPSIS REQUIRES EMERGENCY TREATMENT”
prof. Dr. Sibel Temür, pointing out that the treatment of the disease requires urgency, said that with early and effective intervention within the first hour, the hospital mortality rate due to sepsis decreased from 60 percent to 20 percent. Underlining that the pathogen causing sepsis can be bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic or an unknown infection, and that antibiotic therapy directed at the specific pathogen is very important in the treatment, Prof. Dr. Sibel Temür said, “While both clinical and laboratory evaluation of the patient is done quickly, it is a priority to start the necessary fluid and antibiotherapy. A broad spectrum antibiotic is started according to the patient's blood culture, and it is narrowed within a few days and changed to an antibiotic specific to the pathogen microbe that can only be detected.
“LOS OF LIFE CANNOT BE AVOIDED IN SEPSIS WITHOUT EFFECTIVE ANTIBIOTHERAPY”
Pointing out that the issue of antibiotic resistance, which is an extremely important problem for the whole world, is also very important for the treatment of sepsis, Prof. Dr. Sibel Temür said, “The unconscious use of antibacterial broad-spectrum antibiotics, which have no antiviral effect in simple viral upper respiratory tract diseases, leads to the development of resistance in the body. Not only unnecessary use, but also not using antibiotics at regular time intervals and in an effective time can cause antibiotic resistance. In this case, antibiotics given in case of sepsis development become ineffective due to this developing resistance, and unfortunately, the patient may become vulnerable to microbes for treatment.
INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIAL MEASURES ARE NEEDED
Underlining that sepsis is an extremely important health problem for our country as well as all over the world and that social awareness should be increased to prevent it, Yeditepe University Hospitals Anesthesiology and Reanimation Department, Intensive Care Specialist Prof. Dr. Sibel Temür gave the following information about the precautions to be taken:
“First of all, individual hygiene should be provided and the habit of hand washing, which has become more important especially in the period we live in, should be developed. This culture should be created in our children. Apart from this, another important point is not to use antibiotics unnecessarily and to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotics should be used when necessary and only as prescribed under the supervision of a physician. Establishing infection prevention and control programs and raising public awareness are among the things that need to be done in general.”