Celiac disease is a disease that occurs as a result of an abnormal response by the immune system to gluten, a protein found in cereals such as barley and rye, especially wheat. What is celiac disease? What are the symptoms of celiac disease? How is celiac disease diagnosed? How should be fed in celiac disease?
What are the symptoms of celiac disease?
In celiac disease, the prolamines in wheat, barley, oats and rye are toxic when they reach the small intestine wall. These polypeptides damage the intestinal lumen, the small intestine mucosa loses its normal structure, normal absorption is impaired with a decrease in enzyme concentrations. As a result of all these effects, symptoms such as chronic and recurrent diarrhea, oily and smelly stools, anorexia, vomiting, growth retardation, abdominal swelling, inadequate weight for age and neck for age are observed.
How is celiac disease diagnosed?
The first step in diagnosis is serological tests including EMA and tTG antibodies. Small intestine biopsy is required for definitive diagnosis.
How should be fed in celiac disease?
The treatment for celiac disease is a lifelong gluten-free diet. It has been shown that celiac patients who do not follow a gluten-free diet can develop short stature, various vitamin deficiencies, uterus, osteomalacia and some autoimmune diseases.
- Any food made with wheat, barley, rye, oats
- Bulgur, pasta, vermicelli, vermicelli, couscous
- Ice cream, ice cream cone, wafer, chocolate, waffle, chips
- Fruit yogurts
- Cornflakes, whole grain breakfast cereals
- canned meat
- Processed meat products such as salami, sausage, sausage, pastrami
- Yeasts other than sugar cane
- Salty, sauced cookies
- Malt, balsamic vinegar
- Salad dressings, bouillon tablets, spice mixes, instant soups, flavorings, ketchup, mayonnaise
- Instant salep, boza, turnip juice, beer, wine, whiskey, liqueur, brandy
Free foods in a gluten-free diet;
- Meat group (meat, chicken, turkey, fish)
- Egg and cheese types
- Milk and its products
- Dry beans
- Vegetables and fruits
- Honey, molasses, homemade jam
- Homemade tomato paste
Gluten-free grains (it is important to have the phrase "gluten free" against the risk of contamination);
- Brown rice
Gluten-free flour and starches;
- Gluten-free flour
- Rice flour
- Cornmeal / corn starch
- Buckwheat flour
- Potato starch
- Chickpeas, lentils, broad beans, peas, soy flour
What should be considered in a gluten-free diet?
Even a grain of gluten can be risky for people with celiac disease. For this reason, care should be taken not to contaminate the foods consumed with gluten-containing foods. Bread crumbs should not splash, the fat with which baked foods are fried should not be used again, the same grill should not be cooked without thoroughly cleaning, ready-made minced meat should not be bought, foods containing gluten should be kept in a separate cupboard at home, and all kitchen equipment of celiac people should be separate.
Children with celiac disease should gain the habit of reading labels from a young age. Food additives such as stabilizer, starch, sweetener, emulsifier, hydrolyzed, plant protein may contain gluten.
Studies show that a gluten-free diet can result in malnutrition in terms of carbohydrates, fiber, iron, zinc, folate, and niacin. Getting support from a nutritionist can prevent these deficiencies.
One of the most common nutritional elements in gluten-free diets is dietary fiber. In order to meet the daily pulp requirement, grains with high fiber content such as buckwheat, amaranth and quinoa should be preferred instead of gluten-free grains such as potato and rice, which are commonly consumed in gluten-free diets, or the consumption of legumes should be increased.
Foods such as gluten-free bread and pasta are produced to make the gluten-free diet more sustainable. The processing of foods to obtain gluten-free products changes the macro and micronutrient composition of the food, thus the nutritional quality. Gluten-free products are lower in iron, folate, B vitamins and fiber. In addition, foods containing gluten have higher glycemic index, carbohydrate and fat content than their equivalents. Therefore, attention should be paid to the consumption frequency of these foods.