# Why and How Does Earthquake Occur? Things to Keep in Your Earthquake Bag

Turkey, a country that is no stranger to earthquakes and learn to live with earthquakes. It is very important to better understand the earthquakes in this geography, where there are at least two major earthquakes every year, and to avoid tragic consequences.

## How Does Earthquake Happen?

Earthquakes are caused by various movements of fractures called fault lines in the topmost layer of the earth, called the earth's crust or stone sphere. Fault lines occur when the rocks in the stone sphere break under high pressure conditions such as stress and compression. Earthquakes are seismic waves that occur when the pressure balance of these fractures changes with a sudden movement. To put it more simply; We can say that earthquakes are the instantaneous occurrence of energy between fault lines underground.

This movement in the fault lines between the tectonic plates creates earthquake waves and is the type of energy that has the main destructive power. These earthquake waves move around the earth just like sound waves propagating in the air, and these waves that rise to the surface create an earthquake. If you find answers to your questions such as how earthquake waves occur, it is time to learn how earthquakes are measured.

## How is Earthquake Measured?

The strength of the earthquake is measured in two different ways. One of them is the intensity of the earthquake and the other is its magnitude. These two concepts are often confused and misused. The intensity of the earthquake can be defined as the impact of the earthquake on the earth. In short, it is the name given to the measurement of the damage caused by the earthquake on people, structures and natural formations.

The magnitude of the earthquake is the measurement of the energy released during the earthquake. With the determination of the epicenter of the earthquake, the measurements taken from the seismometer placed underground are calculated using mathematical formulas and the magnitude of the earthquake is revealed with the Richter scale.

## What is a seismometer?

Seismograph is a seismic recording device that allows us to understand the magnitude, duration, center and time of earthquakes by continuously recording the ground movements. The device records the vibrations and seismic waves on special papers and reports them to the necessary centers such as Kandilli Observatory and AFAD with certain communication tools.

Seismograph, which has a very simple operating principle, plays a very important role in measuring the magnitude of earthquakes.

## Things to Keep in Your Earthquake Bag

After an earthquake, an earthquake bag in which you have your urgent needs and necessary documents can save the lives of you and your loved ones. You should take care that earthquake bags are always easily accessible and ready.

What should be in the earthquake bag:

• Su
• Wafer, dried fruit, canned food, biscuit, etc. non-perishable foods
• First aid kit
• Regularly used medicines and their package inserts
• Toilet paper, sanitary pads, wet wipes, soap, disinfectant gel, toothbrush and toothpaste
• If you have a baby, formula, diaper, bottle and spare clothes
• Copies of important documents such as license, identity card, insurance policy, bank passbook, passport
• Cash Money
• Phone numbers of important people you want to reach in case of emergency and your relatives
• Current photos of your family and relatives
• Inventory of your valuables
• Battery radio and spare batteries
• Flashlight with spare batteries
• Blanket Matches and lighter
• Pen, paper
• Whistle