UTIKAD, the International Transport and Logistics Service Providers Association, published the "UTIKAD Logistics Sector Report 2019" on the basis of sustainability in its studies and reports, and then published the "UTIKAD Logistics Sector Report 2020" and presented it to the service of the sector. UTIKAD dedicated this important report to the field workers of the logistics sector, who ensure the continuation of our country's logistics activities in the COVID-19 pandemic.
Measurable data through the activities of the international logistics industry in Turkey, load capacity related to transportation, current developments and bringing together relevant legislation UTIKAD Logistics Industry Report 2020; UTIKAD Sectoral Relations Manager bears the signature of Alperen Güler.
Turkey to draw the basic framework of the logistics industry, sector stakeholders, be a source of reference for the sector to universities and media organizations, Turkey's share of all transport modes in foreign trade and attracting attention in the report to provide information for the development of the title are as follows:
CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIA CREATED UNCERTAINTY
The global logistics sector is one of the leading sectors where the negative effects of the coronavirus pandemic that left its mark on 2020 were felt. The halting and slowing down of production activities in China has put unprecedented pressure on the China-oriented global supply-demand balance. While the imported input needs and the demands of the target markets can be predicted and planned, thanks to the global supply chain that previously operated relatively smoothly in raw material supply, the uncertainty brought about by the coronavirus pandemic is the manufacturers, distributors, buyers, logistics service providers, warehouses, etc. faced with a difficult process to predict and plan due to delayed shipments, increasing logistics costs and delays in financial reconciliations.
In terms of the value of the goods transported, sea transportation has the biggest share in both imports and exports in the last 10 years. Road freight transport is located in Turkey's foreign trade value in the second row basis. air transport in terms of value in Turkey's foreign trade activities between the types of transportation comes third. Rail transport is the transport of species with the lowest share in Turkey's foreign trade. Maritime transport comes first on weight basis as well as on value basis. The share of road transport in imports is around 2016 percent after 4. Rail transport in Turkey as well as both imports
has a share of less than 10% on weight basis in the last 1 years. Air transport is the type of transport with the least share some weight in Turkey's foreign trade due to limited capacity.
in the last 10 years in Turkey's foreign trade volume in 2013 it reached the largest foreign trade. Except for 2017, the export-import difference tends to decrease. While the ratio of exports to imports was only 2011 percent in 56, this ratio increased to 2019 percent at the end of 84,6. While exports to Europe, together with non-EU countries, accounted for 2019 percent of all exports at the end of 56, exports to Europe at the end of the first three quarters of 2020 accounted for 55 percent of all exports.
European countries are followed by Near and Middle Eastern countries with 2019 percent in 19 and 2020 percent at the end of the first three quarters of 18. While imports from non-EU European countries in 2019 accounted for 18 percent of all imports, this rate declined to 2020 percent at the end of the first three quarters of 16. While imports from Near and Middle Eastern countries accounted for 2019 percent of all imports in 8, this rate rose to 2020 percent at the end of the first three quarters of 10. At the end of the first three quarters of 2020, its share in total exports in the first 20 countries that perform approximately 66 percent of Turkey's exports, while the share in total imports in the first 20 countries to which imports about 78 percent.
TRANSPORT ACTIVITIES HAVE THE LARGEST SHARE IN BOTH SERVICE IMPORT AND SERVICE EXPORT
It is largely starting from the assumptions made in the assessment of the magnitude of the logistics sector in büyüklüğüdür.türkiye a difficult issue in the logistics industry as measured actually been wondering in the logistics sector and of its place in Turkey's economy. However, the shares of economic activity branches (Statistical Classification of Economic Activities of the European Union: NACE Rev. 2) in GDP can be a guide. In these evaluations, it should be taken into consideration that not only cargo related activities but also passenger transportation activities are included under the Transport and Storage (H) field of activity.
Turkey's share in the GDP in the assumptions made about the size of the logistics industry is considered to be about 12 percent. It is evaluated that the 50 percent share in this ratio stems directly from the activities of logistics service providers, and the remaining 50 percent is due to the logistics activities carried out by the companies engaged in commodity trade. It takes the biggest share in exports. In 2019, service exports were approximately 33,8 billion USD, while service imports were 24 billion USD.
GIVING THE MOST SHARE FROM PUBLIC INVESTMENTS AND COMMUNICATION SECTOR
Analyzing the public investment made in the last 5 years in Turkey in 2020. Transport and Communications sector is the largest share in the total investment plan. After the global crisis, as of 2010, both the GDP and the Transportation and Storage economic activity area are growing continuously.
EUROPEAN UNION LAUNCHES THE "GREEN LINE" (GREEN LANES) APPLICATION
The developed road network, infrastructure and transportation sector around the world have been affected by the coronavirus pandemic. Due to the transmission of coronavirus by physical contact, the first of the measures taken by countries was to close and limit border crossings. Due to restrictions such as quarantine and health screening imposed on the drivers, delays were experienced in international freight transportation, and long queues were formed at border gates. Mandatory convoy implementations for vehicles that will transit through countries also came to the fore as another factor that caused these delays.
In the period between 2009 and the third quarter of 2020, the share of road transport in Turkey's foreign trade value of some of the downward trend observed until 2018. In the following period compared to 2018, international road freight transport has increased its share in both exports and imports. Within the analyzed ten-year period, the share of freight exported by road was between 2017-22 percent by weight until 24, while its share in the following years, including the end of the first three quarters of 2020, decreased by the end of the first three quarters of 2020. It fell to 16,19.
There has been no significant change in the share of road transport in weight-based import transports in the last 10 years.
TOTAL VOLUME LOSS FOR 2020 MAY BE 17 MILLION TEU
In China, which is an important import and export center in the global supply chain, international maritime transport was negatively affected as the activities in the ports came to a halt due to the epidemic. Call-off cancellations due to reasons such as the denial of ships to ports due to the measures taken by the countries also caused disruptions in the logistics flows.
Similar to the 2008 global crisis, it was estimated that the total volume loss for 10 would be 2020 million TEU in case of a 17 percent volume loss in the seaway.
In terms of value-based export shipments, maritime transport continuously increased its share between 2015 and 2018, and its share in export shipments on value basis rose to 2018 percent in 63,31, the highest rate of the period under review. As in imports, the share of maritime transport in terms of value in exports remained below 2020 percent at the end of the first three quarters of 60 and was realized as 59,86 percent. In the period between 2010 and the third quarter of 2020, no significant changes have been observed in the share of maritime transport in all import transports on a weight basis, but the share of maritime transport in all years of import transports is approximately 95 percent. In the same period, the share of maritime transport in export shipments on a weight basis has been continuously increasing as of 2015. While the share of maritime export shipments in all export transports was 2010 percent in 7, its share was 74,01 percent at the end of 2019. Until the third quarter of 81,09, the share of maritime export shipments in all export shipments reached the highest level of the period examined and was 2020 percent. During the coronavirus pandemic, maritime transportation has increased its share in both imports and exports compared to the end of 82,84.
AIR TRANSPORT IS THE MOST AFFECTED BY THE RESTRICTIONS
It is possible to say that the type of freight transport most affected by the restrictions imposed by countries due to the coronavirus pandemic is air transport. One of the measures taken by countries to prevent the coronavirus pandemic was to stop the flights of passenger planes. Due to the fact that approximately 80% of the air cargo volume is transported by passenger aircraft flying to many more destinations all over the world, flight bans imposed on passenger aircraft resulted in an increase in airline cargo freight rates by causing capacity reduction. Airline companies, which generally cover 20 percent of the cost with cargo on passenger aircraft, had to cover the entire cost of the plane with cargo. Freight not withdrawn from air cargo terminals also put pressure on storage capacities.
during the time between Turkey's foreign trade in 2010 and the third quarter of 2020, particularly air transport has increased the share of import shipments. The share of air transport in value in exports was 2010 percent in 6,84. In the period under review, airline transportation had the highest share in value with 2012 percent in 14,40. In 2019, the share of airline transportation in exports on the basis of value was 8,28 percent, and at the end of the first three quarters of 2020 it was 7,55 percent. In the period from 2010 to the third quarter of 2020, the weight of import cargo carried by air has a very low rate in total import shipments. In export shipments, the share of the airline in exports by weight exceeded 2013 percent in 2014, 2015 and 1. At the end of the first three quarters of 2020, the share of airline transportation in export transportation had the lowest rate in the 10-year period examined, and its share decreased to 0,35 percent.
THE VALUE OF ONE KILOGRAM LOAD EXPORTED BY AIR INCREASED 72 PERCENT
The value of one kilogram of cargo imported by airline in 2016 was US $ 184,65, while it was US $ 2019 at the end of 245,54, and at the end of the first three quarters of 2020, it increased by approximately 2019 percent compared to the end of 72 and reached US $ 423,35.
THE COMPETITIVENESS OF THE RAILWAY INCREASED
Railway freight transport was relatively exempt from restrictive measures and measures taken for sea ports, road border gates and aircraft movements due to the coronavirus pandemic. In the period from 2010 until the end of the third quarter of 2020, the share of some of Turkey's foreign trade value is lower than the share of rail transport in all other types of transportation. It is seen that the share of rail freight transportation, which is preferred in 2020 due to the coronavirus pandemic and enables "contactless trade" activities, has increased marginally. The ratio of rail transport in import shipments after 2012 remained below 2020 percent until the first three quarters of 1; At the end of the first three quarters of 2020, it was again able to rise above 1 percent.
The share of rail transport in export shipments in the last 10 years has consistently remained below 1 percent; The share of rail freight transport, which was 2019 percent in 0,54, increased to 2020 percent at the end of the first three quarters of 0,80. From 2010 to the end of the third quarter of 2020, rail transport also had the lowest share on weight basis. In 2020, both domestic and international freight trains used the Marmaray Tube Pass.
COVID-19 VACCINE WILL TAKE ON THE ROLE OF LOGISTICS
In the last quarter of 2020, with the positive results of the studies of various countries around the world on the Covid-19 vaccine, one of the issues that came to the fore was the logistics of the vaccine. It is important that an effective vaccine against the virus can be delivered to citizens of all countries in the world in order to reduce the effects of the virus on personal and social health and to eventually eradicate it, and to return to the pre-virus order of political, social and economic life. In this process, logistics service providers have an important role and responsibility in bringing the vaccine from production centers to storage and distribution centers under appropriate conditions and to health centers. The logistics movement of 10 billion doses of vaccine worldwide is defined as the largest logistics project after the Second World War. Airline transport will play a key role in transporting vaccines over long distances in a short time.
UNCERTAINTY ARISING WITH THE REXIT PROCESS ARE TRYING TO RESOLVE
After 47 years of membership, with the referendum held in 2016, the UK left the European Union on January 31, 2020, and the transition period ended on December 31, 2020. After the referendum held in 2016, the separation process ended on January 1, 2021.
For logistics service providers, the UK's exit from the EU means new customs procedures, new and different practices and documentation in imports and exports.
The uncertainty process that emerged with Brexit has also found its reflections in the logistics sector, and in order to eliminate these uncertainties, foreign trade and logistics companies and customs administrations have been informed. Transport of Goods between Great Britain and the European Union as of January 1, 2021, published by the United Kingdom: In the Guide for Transporters and Commercial Drivers, documents for drivers and carriers, new rules at ports, new border control processes and customs documents were included. With Britain's leaving the Customs Union, foreign trade companies, customs brokers and logistics service providers will need to learn the new rules of trade with the UK.