Many functions in the human body, such as growth, development, reproduction and adaptation to different types of stress, take place thanks to the nervous system and hormones. The nervous system can be thought of as wired and hormones as a wireless communication system. Hormones are chemicals secreted by endocrine glands. These can be thought of as message-carrying molecules. Internal and external glands are found in different parts of the body. However, it has a functional integrity and is in close relationship with the nervous system and works in a coordinated manner. Because of this integrity, these processes are examined under the name of the endocrine system. What is the endocrine system? What is an endocrinologist and endocrinologist?
What are the types of endocrine system diseases? How is the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine system diseases?
What is the endocrine system?
What does endocrine mean is a frequently encountered question, but it is incomplete. It is a system formed by endocrine endocrine glands. In order to cope with this situation, living beings that have to adapt to the changes occurring in the external environment and maintain the balance in the body must have a proper functioning of the endocrine system. This order provided by the endocrine system is ensured by the secretion of chemicals called hormones produced by the endocrine glands. Thanks to this system, it regulates many functions related to metabolism such as nutrition, salt-liquid balance, reproduction, growth and development. Endocrine glands consisting of glandular cells obtain complex compounds from simple substances according to the instant needs of the body. They obtain the hormone to be produced from the nutrients taken from the blood vessels and the produced hormone is transmitted to the relevant organ through the blood and affects the functioning of the organ. Hormones only affect target cells and are controlled in two ways; chemical and neurological control. Decreased level of hormone in blood in chemical control; In neurological control, the central and autonomic nervous system control hormone secretion according to stimuli from the environment. In this way, the glands that provide hormone transmission by mixing with the blood are called endocrine glands. While the endocrine glands are directly supplied to the blood, the exocrine glands leave their secretions to the body cavity or the skin through the ducts. Examples of endocrine glands are pituitary, thyroid and parathyroid. Salivary gland, liver and prostate are examples of external glands.
What is an endocrinologist and endocrinologist?
Endocrinology is the branch of science that deals with the working system of the endocrine glands and the hormones they produce. It differs from other departments in medicine because it cannot be separated by precise anatomical borders. The question of what is endocrinology can be briefly answered as the science of endocrine diseases or hormonal diseases. Endocrinology, which has a very wide area, carbohydrate metabolism disorder known as diabetes, thyroid, pituitary, adrenal gland disorders, metabolic bone diseases, testicular and ovarian hormone deficiency or excess, as well as metabolic diseases such as protein, carbohydrate and fat metabolism. , diabetes, growth, development, hypertension are also included in the field of endocrinology. Anyone who is interested in science that deals with the whole of endocrine system diseases is called an Endocrinologist. Physicians specialized in this branch complete 6 or 4 years of internal medicine specialization after completing 5 years of medical education. Then, they go through a very long training period by receiving education in the endocrine department for 3 years. Physicians who are endocrinologists deal with the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine system diseases. Usually, when the previous doctor you see detects a problem with the endocrine system or if it is needed, they will refer you to the endocrinologist. The simplest answer to the question of what is an endocrinologist can be given as specialist physicians who diagnose and treat diseases affecting the glands.
What are the types of endocrine system diseases?
Endocrine system diseases are quite extensive. Each disease also has different sub-branches. For example, simple goiter occurs when the thyroid gland grows. It can occur if not enough iodine is taken in the diet or if thyroid hormone production is suppressed for different reasons. In such cases, the thyroid gland works and grows more than normal. In some cases, the gland becomes so large that it is visible from the outside and affects breathing and swallowing. As another example, Cushing's syndrome also concerns endocrinology. This disease is roughly caused by the presence of high levels of cortisol in the blood. Cushing's syndrome is characterized by hyperglycemia, decreased tissue protein levels, decreased protein synthesis, osteoporosis, decreased immune response, increased susceptibility to infections, hypertension, muscle weakness, fatigue and depression. Excessive cortisol levels result in obesity that is not seen in the arms and legs, but with fat accumulation in certain parts of the abdomen, trunk and face. In case of suppression of collagen production, intradermal bleeding and purple lines on the skin may be observed. At the same time, deepening of the voice can be seen due to hormone changes. Apart from these two examples, some endocrine system diseases in the field of endocrinology are as follows:
- Pituitary gland diseases
- Short stature and growth hormone deficiency
- Pituitary gland failure
- Prolactin hormone excess
- Growth hormone excess
- Diabetes insipidus
- Parathyroid hormone excess
- Parathyroid hormone deficiency
- Adrenal gland diseases
- Cortisol hormone excess
- Cortisol hormone deficiency
- Aldosterone hormone excess
- Adrenaline hormone excess secretion
- Testis, hormones and diseases
- Testosterone deficiency
- Breast enlargement in men
- Erection problem and impotence
- Small testicles and penis, no beard growth
- Ovarian hormones and disorders
- Sexual hormone deficiency in women
- Polycystic ovary syndrome
- Thyroid gland and its functions
- Overwork of the thyroid gland
- Less work of the thyroid gland
- Nodular goiter
- Thyroid cancers
- Hashimoto's disease
- Thyroiditis-thyroid gland inflammation
How is the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine system diseases?
There are many diseases related to endocrinology, as well as many diagnosis and treatment methods. These range from medication to surgical intervention. Laboratory and radiological examinations are requested if deemed appropriate by your specialist physician. All complaints, symptoms and results are evaluated and an appropriate diagnosis is made. Afterwards, the treatment method is determined quickly. For example, common diabetes is a metabolic disease and causes disorders in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism as a result of hormone secretion and insufficiency. It affects 5% in developing countries and 10% of developed country populations, and its frequency increases with age. In this case, where the story of the patient is also important, we may present with many symptoms such as dry mouth, weight loss, blurred vision, numbness in the feet, tingling and burning, urinary tract infections, vulvovaginitis, fungal infections, itching, dry skin and fatigue. It is classified as Type-1 and Type-2 and other types. The diagnosis can be made by symptoms, as well as additional laboratory tests such as blood glucose measurement, fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test and urine glucose measurement. Its treatment is given according to the type of diabetes and the condition of the patient. Diabetes insipidus, that is, diabetes without sugar may occur as a result of ADH deficiency. The ADH hormone ensures that no more fluid is excreted than expected from the kidneys and that body fluids are reabsorbed. This disease, also called sugar-free diabetes, often causes thirst. In such patients, the pituitary gland is examined by laboratory test and MRI. In this situation, where the story of the patient is also important, appropriate treatment is started as a result of the diagnosis. Another example is acromegaly. Surgical intervention and radiotherapy can be applied in the treatment of this disease, which occurs as a result of overwork of growth hormone secreted from the pituitary gland. Dwarfism can also be seen as a result of insufficient hormone secretion. Recovery can be achieved as a result of appropriate hormone supplements or surgical intervention applied to some glands. The treatment method applied for each disease is determined and applied by the endocrinologist.