Andrology is a branch of science that deals with male reproductive system diseases as well as sexual dysfunctions in men and women. The main field of interest of this branch of science is reproductive and sexual health. In this context, the physiological and pathological condition of all organs in the pelvic region, known as the pelvic region, is effective in the healthy functioning of this region.
The term andrology is derived from Greek. It means -andros (male) and logos (science) in Greek. Andrology is a top specialty of urology. Urologists need to be interested in reproductive and sexual health issues, and increase their knowledge, surgical experience and experience, following their specialty training for Andrology.
Male infertility : Failure of pregnancy despite regular sexual intercourse for a year is called infertility. Despite regular sexual intercourse, couples cannot have children.
It occurs in about 15% of couples all over the world. Although inability to have children is perceived as a problem of women, it is known that the problem develops due to the problem of only women in approximately 40%, men only in 40% and both in 20%.
These statistics show us that approximately 50% of infertility is caused by men.
Male infertility can be caused by inadequate sperm production, sperm not functioning normally, or blockages in the sperm ducts. Varicocele, infection, ejaculation problems, sperm antibodies, tumors, undescended testicles, chromosome defects and previous surgeries are among the causes of male infertility. The task of the andrologist is to investigate whether all these causes are present in the patient.
Sperm Test (Spermiogram) is most commonly used in the diagnosis of male infertility. In the test performed after 3 days of sexual abstinence, sperms are evaluated in many aspects, including number, mobility and deformity.
The sperm test is also known as a semen test, semen analysis or spermiogram. The absence of sperm in this test is known as Azoospermia. Azoospermia (Infertility) Treatment is possible by determining the condition that will cause azoospermia.
Azoospermia is examined under 2 headings. In the case of occlusive azoospermia, the treatment is based on the elimination of the obstruction. In non-occlusive azoospermia, treatment is performed with various hormonal or non-hormonal drugs.
Undescended testis poses a significant risk in terms of both infertility and testicular cancer in adulthood. When testicles, which are normally kept at a lower temperature than body temperature, cannot complete their descent into the scrotum, they cannot fully perform their sperm formation processes.
Hypogonadism, which is a clinical condition in which the production of hormones called testosterone decreases, also poses a risk for male factor infertility. One of the common causes of infertility in men is varicocele. Varicocele means abnormal enlargement of the vessels leading to the egg. The male factor is one of the major causes of infertility that can be treated surgically. Varicocele surgery offers a solution option for infertility.
Andrologists are also experts in assisted reproductive techniques. Microscopic Testicular Sperm Recovery (Micro Tese), Testicular Sperm Aspiration (TESA) are among the procedures performed by andrologists.
Erection problems (Erectile dysfunction): It is the condition that the penis does not harden during sexual intercourse or that its hardness disappears in a short time. It is popularly called impotence. Erection problems may be psychologically related to home and workplace problems, or there may be an underlying disease.
Excessive alcohol, smoking, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and nervous system diseases can cause erection problems. Andrologists can treat erectile dysfunction by using some oral medications, needle injection into the penis, shock wave therapy and penile prosthesis (happiness stick). Erection treatment Nowadays it is possible to do it medically in many ways.
In addition to various oral medications, there are also medications that are squeezed into the penis. Apart from that, there are various treatment options such as ESWT (shock wave therapy). In cases where there is no response to all these treatments, Penile Prosthesis (happiness stick) is offered to patients as a surgical treatment option.
Female sexual dysfunctions: The science of Andrology contributes to the determination of physiopathological processes and the initiation of appropriate treatments for sexual dysfunctions classified as sexual desire disorders, arousal disorders, orgasm disorders, pain and disgust disorders in women. Vaginismus is the absence of first sexual intercourse with a painful vaginal contraction. Vaginismus treatment It is successfully performed by experienced doctors.
Loss of sexual desire: The sex drive is called libido. Basically it is controlled by the testosterone hormone. Hormonal factors, environmental and psychological factors affect libido. Some systemic diseases can cause sexual anorexia.
It is a very common sexual dysfunction in both women and men. There are also normal physiological processes that affect sexual desire. There may be differences in sexual desire levels in women during the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, lactation and menopause.
In men, there is a similar increase in sexual desire due to a decrease in testosterone level or a significant decrease in its effectiveness with aging. However, not only a decrease in desire, but also an increase in sexual desire in some cases can cause problems. The task of andrologists is to find out which of these possibilities is effective in the patient.
Structural disorders in the penis: The most common problems are small penis and penile curvature. Penis size has been puzzling many men. Contrary to popular belief, true cases of micropenis are less common. Penis length may differ depending on genetic and hormonal reasons. Buried penis is another disorder of penis appearance. It is treated appropriately. Penis enlargement surgery (lengthening and thickening) can be performed surgically when the penis is small.
Penis curvature is the curvature of the penis in a way that prevents sexual intercourse. It may be a congenital congenital structural disorder or curvature of the penis may occur with advancing age. This condition seen in older ages is known as Peyronie's disease.
Ejaculation disorders: Ejaculation in men is called ejaculation during orgasm. Different ejaculation problems such as premature ejaculation (premature ejaculation), absence of ejaculation, retrospective ejaculation, late ejaculation, painful ejaculation, and bloody ejaculation can be seen. Premature ejaculation is the most common ejaculation problem.
Premature ejaculation treatment begins after the underlying cause is determined by andrology specialist examinations and tests. Andrology plans to find the cause of ejaculation problems and to treat them. However, orgasm and orgasm problems known as ejaculation / relaxation in women are also within the area of interest of Andrology.
Varicocele: Varicocele, which is encountered in about 30-40% of those who consult a doctor with infertility problem, is the varicose veins that drain the blood in the testicles. It can disrupt sperm and testosterone production, leading to infertility. Andrologists can treat these abnormal vessels with microsurgery. Varicocele surgery It is known that there is an increase in pregnancy and live birth rates in a significant number of patients after this period.
Prostate diseases: Prostatitis and prostate cancer, which are prostatitis, are the most common diseases of this organ. Among this group of diseases, chronic prostatitis is the disease that affects especially young age group patients.
Testicular diseases: Testicular torsion is the rotation of the testicle around its own channel. It is an emergency and painful picture. Testicular torsion, trauma, inflammation and testicular cancer are among the job descriptions of andrologists.
Sexually transmitted diseases: Men who have an active sex life and have many partners are at risk in this respect. If the infections that occur are not treated, they become the cause of infertility in the future due to factors such as blockage in the sperm ducts and the presence of chronic infection.
Problems seen in older men: As men get older, they experience a condition similar to menopause in women. The testosterone hormone in their body decreases. This can lead to weakness in muscles and bones and mood deterioration. Hypogonadism (low testosterone) seen in aging men not only causes a decrease in sexual functions, but also causes symptoms such as deterioration in bone structure, increase in fat, and depressive affect.
Hydrocele: It is the accumulation of water in the sac called the scrotum that contains the testicles. It manifests itself as swelling. Usually there is no pain. The patient initially does not consult a doctor, thinking that this swelling may pass. However, due to the increase in time, he panicked and decided to meet with the doctor. It is a disease that is mostly treated surgically. In its differential diagnosis, testicular inflammations, cord cysts, inguinal hernia or testicular cancers should be kept in mind.