Historians have determined that in advanced civilizations of ancient times such as Aztec, Maya and Egypt, vehicles similar to today's cable cars were used. Among these, there are those that advance by encircling arms, as well as advanced types. However, due to various difficulties, a true ropeway system could not be established until 1800 years.
With the discovery of electricity, it has been possible for the cable car to become widespread. At the same time, the first long-distance line (74 km), the cable car line was built in 1919 in the La Dorada region of Colombia. The first passenger transportation by cable car was carried out in 1929 between the city of Freiburg and Schavn İnsland Mountain in Germany. The advancement of industry allowed the advanced ropeway system to emerge. Such a line built on the Tigris River in Iraq in 1951 can carry 4032 tons of cargo at a time.
The longest ropeways available today are Kiristineberg-Boliden (Sweden: 96,5 km), Comilog (Congo: 78 km), La Dorada (Colombia: 74 km), Massus-Asmara (Eritrea: 73 km). Important ropeways with higher altitudes above sea level are Mürrin-Schildhorn (Switzerland: 6632 m), Aigulle de Midi (France: 3802 m) and Mérida (Venezuela: 3000 m). The fastest cable car in the world (40,64 km / h) also operates in Sand-peat, New Mexico, USA.
What is a ropeway?
The ropeway is a transport system made by suspended vehicle traveling between two distant places by tying on one or more steel ropes stretched in the air. Ropeways work with the principle of elevators, but they can climb to very high points from the ground, like a helicopter, especially in valley crossings.
The cable car is set up between heights that are difficult to access. There are also those available on a sea or strait. The places where the ropeways are set up are areas where transportation by land, rail and sea is very difficult or very expensive. The ropeway established between two specific points in such areas is used for the transmission of people or materials. Ropeways in which people are transported consist of passenger cabins suspended from steel ropes.
The ropeway systems, which are generally single direction and single rope circulation, are designed with two or more steel ropes. The other rope (s) of a rope is a carrier rope.
The ropeway systems are separated from each other by means of a clamp (Grip) which is connected to the rope.
- Babylift (starting lift)
- Teleski Top speed 2,4 m / s
- Chairlift (2/4/6 seater) Highest line speed 3,0 m / s per second
- Detachable Chairlift with automatic clamp Maximum line speed 5 m / s
- Automatic Clamped Gondola (Detachable Gondola) Highest line speed 6 m / sec
- Group Gondolas (Pulsed Movement Aerial Ropeways) The highest line speed 7 m / s is usually set to speed at 3,0 m / s, since these systems are installed on short distances.
- Var-Gel Type Ropeways These systems are generally used in terrain conditions and wide valleys where direct assembly is difficult. The highest line speed is 12,0 m / sec.
- Combined Systems The basis of these systems is automatic clamping. General structures are designed according to chairs and gondola.
- Multi-rope systems constitute Var-Gel type cable cars in general. The system, which works with a tow truck and several carrier ropes, is used for gondola lift systems in areas with high wind rate.
Some mines also use ropeway systems for material transportation.