Railway Adventure of the Ottoman Empire in Turkey

From the black train to the yhtye railway history
From the black train to the yhtye railway history

The Republic of Turkey State Railways TCDD, or simply governing the rail transport in Turkey is operating and controlling public institutions.

The railways, which were mostly built and operated by the capital owners with the build-operate model during the Ottoman Empire, started to be nationalized with the Law No. 24 published on May 1924, 506, after the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, and Chemins de fer d'Anatolie Baghdad / Anadolu - Baghdad Railways (CFAB) The company is structured as a state company with its name. Later, in order to carry out the construction and operation of the railways together and to provide wider working opportunities, CFAB Company, Havali-yi Şarkiye Railways and Railway Construction and Management Administration were combined with the Law No. -i Umumiyesi was established. With the Law No. 31 published on January 1927, 1042, this institution was replaced by the General Directorate of State Railways. This institution, which was managed as a state administration with an annexed budget until 30, was transformed into an Economic State Enterprise (IDT) under the name of the Republic of Turkey State Railways (TCDD) Enterprise with the Law No. 1929 published on 1483 July 1953. With the Decree Law No. 29, which was put into effect, the institution became a Public Economic Organization (KİK). kazanIs Her.

the context of harmonization with the EU acquis, restructuring of the railways in Turkey and in the rail transport sector in order to improve the collaboration and liberalization of competition published in the May 1, 2013 6461 Turkey No. pursuant to the Law on the Liberalization of Railway Transport June 14, 2016 Date of TCDD, a subsidiary of the Turkish State Railways Transport .S. has been established. In accordance with this embodiment, TCDD, Turkey continues to manage the railway infrastructure in the Railway Infrastructure Operator; TCDD Tasimacilik, as the Railway Train Operator, carries out passenger and freight transport on railways.

Ottoman Period (1856 - 1922)

The entrance of railway transportation to the Ottoman Empire, which first started in England in 1825 and spread throughout Europe in 25 years, was much earlier than many other technological innovations. The railway adventure in the Ottoman Empire first started with the Cairo - Alexandria railway line, which was built in the Khedive of Egypt between 3 and 1851. The history of the railway in Anatolia began on September 1856, 22, when the British Ottoman Railway Company / Ottoman Railway Company (ORC) hit the first dig for the construction of the Izmir-Alsancak-Aydın railway line. This line was put into service on July 1856, 10, during the reign of Sultan Abdulaziz, after 1 years of work. The Izmir-Basmane-Kasaba (Turgutlu) railway line, which started to be built in 1866 with another privilege given to the British The Smyrna Cassaba Railway / Izmir - Kasaba Railway (SCR) Company, was put into service on January 1863, 10. The Ottoman Government issued a decree in 1866 with the idea of ​​passing the railway line connecting India and Europe through Istanbul by building a railway line from Istanbul to Baghdad and the Istanbul-Ankara railway line, which was started to be built by the Nafia Ministry in 1871, Haydarpaşa - İzmit section was put into service in August 1872. With a new edict issued on 1873 October 8, the German Chemins de Fer Ottomans d'Anatolie / Ottoman Anatolian Railways (CFOA) Company was granted a concession to extend this line from Izmit to Ankara. The construction of the İzmit - Eskişehir - Ankara part of the railway line was started in 1888 and the line was put into service on 1889 December 31. Again, with a new concession given to the CFOA company, the construction of the Eskişehir - Konya railway line was started on 1892 August 31 and this line was put into service on 1893 July 29.

The construction of the line, which started with the concession given to the Chemins du Fer Impérial Ottomans de Bagdad / Ottoman Imperial Baghdad Railway (CIOB) Company in 1903 for the construction of the Konya - Baghdad part of the line called the Baghdad Railway, was the intervention of the First World War and the old It took years with the establishment of many new states in the Ottoman geography and was only completed in the 1940s. Line moment that the rest of Konya in Turkey's borders - between Nusaybin yet been put into service in World War I. While in 1917. The construction and operation of the Rumeli Railway, which was given to Baron Maurice de Hirsch in 1896, was completed in 2.383 and the railway connection between Istanbul and Europe was established. Istanbul - Alpullu - Demirköprü and Alpullu - Kırklareli parts of this railway line, which are within the national borders, and the Karaağaç exclave are 1.480,7 km. long.

1896 km, the construction and operation concession was given to Baron Maurice de Hirsch in 2383. The long Rumeli Railway was completed in 1888 and the railway connection between Istanbul and Europe was provided. Istanbul - Alpullu - Demirköprü and Alpullu - Kırklareli parts of this railway line, which are within the national borders, and the Karaağaç exclave are 336 km. long.

The total length of the railways built and opened in the Ottoman period is 8.619 km. However, part of the 4559 km of these lines remained with the newly established Republic of Turkey. Of these lines, the 2.282 km standard line and the ~ 41,800 km narrow line are owned by foreign capital companies, while the 2.207 km standard line and ~ 80 km narrow line are owned by State owned companies.

War of Independence Period (1919 - 1923)

With the successes it achieved in carrying soldiers, weapons and supplies to the front in the War of Independence, and in the transportation of veterans from the fronts back, that is, in the logistics of the war, the railways became a part of the War of Independence. kazanplayed an important role in the In this period, Behiç Erkin, who later became the Director of the General Directorate of Anatolian - Baghdad Railways, was honored with both the Grand National Assembly of Turkey Commendation and the Medal of Independence for his success in the flawless operation of the railways.

Republican Period

1923 - 1940 Period

In this period, parts of the existing railway lines belonging to foreign companies were nationalized and the railway infrastructure was developed by constructing new railway lines. For this purpose, Chemins de fer d'Anatolie Baghdad / Anadolu - Baghdad Railways (CFAB) Company was established as a state company for the nationalization of railways on 24 May 1924.

On May 31, 1927, the State Railways Ports Administration (DDYL), a state institution -including the CFAB company- was established. With the establishment of DDYL, the construction and operation of the railways started to be carried out together. 1923 km in Anatolian lands as of 4559. The length of the railway line reached 1940 km with the works carried out until 8637.

In the 1932st and 1936nd Five-Year Industrialization Plans prepared in 1 and 2, priority was given to basic industries such as iron and steel, coal and machinery. Railway investments were important in order to transport such mass loads in the cheapest and safest way. In these plans, it is aimed that the railways achieve the following goals:

  • Reaching potential production centers and natural resources.

The railway line reaching Ergani is called copper, coal reaching Karadeniz Ereğli, cotton reaching Adana and iron reaching Çetinkaya.

  • Establishing relationships between production and consumption centers, ie ports and post-regions.

The ports that reach the railway with Samsun - Kalın railway and Irmak - Zonguldak railway lines were increased from 6 to 8. The sea connection of Central and Eastern Anatolia was reinforced with the Samsun and Zonguldak lines.

  • Ensuring the spread of economic development at the country level and reaching especially the less developed regions.

Kayseri in 1927, Sivas in 1930, Malatya in 1931, Niğde in 1933, Elazığ in 1934, Diyarbakır in 1935 and Erzurum in 1939 were connected to the railway network. 1940 - 1960 Period

The period between 1940 and 1960 is the "Period of Stagnation" in terms of railways. Indeed, despite the economic famine and impossibilities of İsmet İnönü's period, the construction of the railway II. It was continued until the World War. After 1940, it slowed down due to the war. 1923 km built between 1960 - 3.578. 3.208 km of the long railway lines are those that were completed until 1940. During this period, connecting to the institutions of the Republic of Turkey Ministry of Transport on July 29, 1953 The State Railways (TCDD) has received the Business name. The status of the institution has been transformed into an Economic State Corporation. In 1955, the first electric train line in the country, B1 (Sirkeci - Halkalı) The Suburban Train line has been opened.

1960 - 2000 Period

After the War of Independence, among all the impossibilities, an average of 240 km per year. While the railway line is being built, despite the technology and financial opportunities developed after 1960, only an average of 39 km per year. long railways could be built. The main reason why the railways were left behind during these dates is the change in the transportation policy of the state. Former Prime Minister and President Turgut Özal said "an outdated method of transportation" and "Railway is the choice of communist countries because its transportation is for central control purposes".

As a result, the rail line length in the country increased by only 1960% between 1997 and 11. While highways and railways had a share of 1960% and 50% from the investment shares in the transportation sectors in the 30s, the share of the railways has remained below 1985% since 10. Road transport share in Turkey 96% and the share of rail passenger transport is only 2%. The share of railways in passenger transportation decreased by 38% in these years due to the fact that the existing infrastructure and operating conditions were not improved and new corridors were not opened.

2000 and After

Approximately 2002 million tons of freight was transported in 14. Freight transport includes not only goods transported domestically, but also goods coming from abroad and going to other countries.

highway transportation system in Turkey - When the share of rail freight transport, road freight transport rate of 94%, while rail freight transport share of 4%.

TCDD is in an ongoing effort both to renew existing lines and to add new lines. In particular, it tries to renew the old rail technology that has existed since 2003 and switch to a new and more up-to-date high-speed train system. The Ankara - Eskişehir stage of the Ankara - Istanbul high speed railway line, which was built within the scope of these studies, was completed in 2009, the Eskişehir - Pendik stage in 2014 and the Pendik - Halkalı stage was put into service in 2019, and Polatlı - Konya high-speed railway line was put into service in 2011.

TCDD Organization

TCDD level of government control, oversight, coordination and relations with the Republic of Turkey are carried out by the Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure. The Central Government consists of 18 specialized Departments and Legal, Defense and Press and Public Relations units; Railway transportation services are carried out by 7 Regional Directorates. In addition, the responsibility of the services it provides with its 7 ports is under the General Directorate. As of 2018, a total of 624 employees, including 13736 civil servants and 14.360 contracted personnel. TCDD's partnerships, together with organizations, consists of 27.540 people in total.

TCDD has divided the railway network into total 8 region to carry out the services it is obliged to carry out. Each region is managed by a separate regional directorate. Regional directorates and centers are as follows:

  • TCDD 1st Regional Directorate - Haydarpaşa Train Station, Istanbul
  • TCDD 2. Regional Directorate - Ankara Station, Ankara
  • TCDD 3. Regional Directorate - Alsancak Station, İzmir
  • TCDD 4th Regional Directorate - Sivas Station, Sivas
  • TCDD 5th Regional Directorate - Malatya Station, Malatya
  • TCDD 6th Regional Directorate - Adana Train Station, Adana
  • TCDD 7th Regional Directorate - Ali Çetinkaya Station, Afyonkarahisar
  • TCDD YHT (8.) Regional Directorate - Ankara High Speed ​​Train Station, Ankara

Besides its subsidiaries, TCDD is also a partner to various subsidiaries in the field of railways.

  • İZBAN; It was established with Izmir Metropolitan Municipality in order to operate public transportation at the metro standards on the Selçuk - Aliağa line.
  • RAYSİMAŞ; It was established jointly with Türksat and Ankara Metropolitan Municipality in order to conduct studies, projects, research, development and testing activities for railways, rail transportation lines and vehicles used in the sector.
  • HYUNDAI EUROTEM A.Ş .; Hyundai purpose of producing all types of railway vehicles in Turkey was established by Rotem.
  • VADEMSAS; It was established with Voestalpine and Kardemir to produce railway switches suitable for high speeds.
  • SİTAŞ; It was established with Kolsan and Margaritelli SPa to produce sleepers used in railways.

Duties and services

TCDD has been providing passenger transport, freight transport and port services since its establishment.

The basic duties of the organization determined by law are as follows:

  • To operate, expand and renew the railways, ports, docks and piers given to it by the state,
  • Guiding and coordinating its affiliates and affiliates within the framework of laws, statutes, regulations, development and annual programs,
  • As supplementary works when necessary; To perform all kinds of sea and land transportation works, including ferryboats, which are complementary to railway transportation,
  • Making towed and towed vehicles and equipment and similar ones; Establishing and operating warehouses, warehouses, warehouses and similar facilities required by their duties and facilities required for passenger needs,
  • Undertaking the railway constructions that are and will be done at home and abroad, alone or in partnership,
  • It is obliged to fulfill the duties assigned by the Council of Ministers regarding its fields of activity. 

Port management 

List of ports affiliated to TCDD enterprises and operated by TCDD:

  1. Haydarpaşa Port
  2. Port of Izmir
  3. Samsun Port
  4. Port of Iskenderun
  5. Port of Bandırma
  6. Derince Port
  7. Mersin Port

Among these ports, Samsun, İskenderun, Bandırma and Mersin ports have been privatized through the long-term transfer of the operating rights. Tenders were held twice to privatize Derince with the same method, but both were canceled. 

Passenger and freight transport 

TCDD, released on May 1, 2013 Turkey No. 6461 Law on the Liberalization of Railway Transport According to the railway infrastructure in Turkey Railway Infrastructure Operator as manages. TCDD Tasimacilik, a subsidiary of TCDD, is Railway Train Operator carries out passenger and freight transportation on these railways. The services provided by TCDD Tasimacilik are as follows:

Passenger Transportation

  • Yüksek Hızlı Tren
  • Outline Trains
  • Regional Trains
  • Commuter Trains / Urban Public Transport
  • International Trains

Freight Transport

It is the Freight Transportation Service carried out by TCDD Tasimacilik on the railway lines belonging to TCDD. Almost all kinds of freight, from raw materials to finished goods, from spare parts to automobiles, from food to white goods, can be transported domestically or abroad with the various freight wagons in TCDD Tasimacilik's vehicle stock. 

In addition, TCDD builds logistic villages in 18 regions in order to increase the share of railways in freight transportation.

Sales and marketing 

Tickets for passenger trains operated by TCDD Tasimacilik can be purchased from the Station Directorates, authorized agencies, via the TCDD Tasimacilik website or smartphone application.

High Speed ​​and High Standard Railway Projects

Turkey High Speed ​​Rail lines: finished, lines under construction and in planning stages

TCDD started high-speed train line projects in 2003. The first line is 533 km of total length. It is the Istanbul - Eskişehir - Ankara line that is envisaged to be. High Speed ​​Train is currently in Ankara - Polatlı - Pendik - Halkalı and Polatlı - Konya parts are in operation. On these roads, Ankara - Konya, Ankara - Halkalı ve Halkalı - Regular passenger transportation has started between Konya.

Ankara - Istanbul YHD Line 

The total of the existing line between Ankara and Istanbul is 576 km. are all signaled and electrical. The Ankara - Eskişehir stage of the High Speed ​​Train line, which was built independently of the existing line, with an operational speed of 250 km / hour, with double lines, electrical and signal, started full operation on 15 March 2009, and Eskişehir - Istanbul stage on 25 July 2014, Ankara - Eskişehir - The railway distance between Istanbul has decreased to 523 km and the travel time to 3,5 hours.

Polatlı - Konya YHD Line 

Polatlı - Konya YHD is a double line, electrical, signaled high speed railway, which leaves the Ankara - Istanbul YHD line in Polatlı and goes south.

The length of the line from Polatlı to Konya is 212 km. The construction of the line started in August 2006 and the entire line was put into service on 23 August 2011. With this line, the Ankara - Konya train journey time, which was 10 hours 30 minutes (due to the lack of a direct line in between), has decreased to 70 minutes. Within the scope of the project, 7 bridges, 27 overpasses, 83 underpasses, 143 culverts and a 2030 meter long tunnel were built. 

Ankara - Sivas - Kars YHD Project 

Eastern Anatolia and Sivas, Turkey's largest city of the (Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir) in a shorter time provide transportation and perform the connection between speed railway with the aim of Ankara - Sivas - is a planned high-speed rail made in Kars. 

Ankara - Sivas stage

Construction of the 442 km Yerköy - Sivas stage of the 293 km Ankara - Yozgat - Sivas line started in February 2009 and the physical infrastructures were completed by 80%. The 174 km Ankara - Yerköy line project has a minimum speed of 250 km per hour. It is still in the planning stage to make it happen.

Sivas - Kars stage

The construction of the Sivas - Erzincan - Erzurum - Kars stage of the line is still at the planning stage.

Polatlı - İzmir YSD Project 

The line is planned to reach İzmir, starting from Ankara, passing through Afyonkarahisar - Uşak - Manisa, respectively. After passing Polatlı, it will fork at Kocahacılı location, which is located at 120th km of Ankara - Konya YHT and proceed to Afyonkarahisar direction. 

The total length of the project is expected to be 624 kilometers and the total construction cost is 4 billion TL. The first phase of the project is Ankara - Afyonkarahisar, the second phase is between Afyonkarahisar - Uşak - Eşme and the third phase is between Eşme - Manisa - Izmir. When the line is completed, the travel time between Ankara and Izmir will be 3,5 hours, and Ankara - Afyonkarahisar will be 1,5 hours. 

The infrastructure construction contract for the 287-kilometer Ankara - Afyonkarahisar stage of the line was signed on June 11, 2012 with the partnership of Sigma-Burkay-Makimsan-YDA. 167 km. The stage, which is long, is aimed to be completed within 3 years. The construction tender of Afyonkarahisar - Uşak - Eşme, which is the second stage, is planned to be held by the end of this year. Revision works for the implementation projects of the Eşme - Manisa - İzmir stage are ongoing. 

The project, for which 2013 million TL was spent as of the end of 130 and the realization rate of which was 6%, is planned to be completed in 2017. 

Bandırma - Bursa - Osmaneli YSD Project 

It is a project that aims to enable Bursa to be connected to other big cities and Anatolia by rail, and it is planned to reduce the burden of Istanbul by using Gemlik port via railway in trade. The Bursa high-speed train project, which is planned to be connected to the existing Istanbul-Ankara high-speed train line in Osmaneli, starting from Bandırma, passing through Bursa and Yenişehir, is expected to become active in 2018.

YSE Yapı-Tepe İnşaat joint venture carried out the infrastructure of the 75-kilometer section of the project between Bursa and Yenişehir in 393 for 2015 million Turkish lira. Currently, the work in this section is carried out by Çelikler Holding. When the line is completed, it will be integrated with the Istanbul - Eskişehir - Ankara high-speed train line and the travel times between Ankara - Bursa and Istanbul - Bursa will be reduced to 2,5 hours.

stations 

According to the data of 2011, there are 62 directorates, 76 stations with the status of chief and 279 stations with the status of chief on the railways. There are also 8 officer and 296 officer stops and 98 saydings. 

Some of the TCDD stations and stations that stand out in terms of their historical and architectural features are:

Izmir Alsancak Train Station

The construction of the Alsancak Train Station (formerly Punta Railway Station), which was the first stop of the "Ottoman Railway from Izmir to Aydin", started in 1857 during the period of Governor Mustafa Pasha and the station was put into service in 1858. The station, whose repair started in 2006, was put into service again in 2010 and is only used by İZBAN trains.

Istanbul Sirkeci Train Station

The construction of the Sirkeci Station in Sarayburnu on the European side of Istanbul started on 11 February 1888 and the station was opened on 3 November 1890. Its architect is the German architect and engineer August Jachmund. 

Istanbul Haydarpasa Train Station

With the desire to build a magnificent structure at the starting point of the Baghdad Railway, which was of great importance for the Ottoman Empire. It was built by Abdulhamid. Designed by two German architects, Otto Ritter and Helmuth Cuno, the construction of the station began on 30 May 1906 and was completed in 1908. The building was destroyed on September 6, 1917, when the ammunition waiting to be loaded on trains to be used in World War I exploded, but was rebuilt in accordance with its original, except for the roof. 

Ankara Station

Ankara Train Station is the main train station of TCDD in Ankara. Its first building was built in 1892 as a station of the Ottoman Anatolian Railways. Construction of the current main station building started on March 4, 1935 and was completed on October 30, 1937.

Celebrations of the 150th anniversary

TCDD accepts the year 1856, the date when the construction of the İzmir-Aydın Railway began as its foundation year, and therefore, in 2006, it organized various celebrations to celebrate its 150th anniversary. During the celebrations held at TCDD Ankara Train Station, Minister of Transport Binali Yıldırım and Minister of Culture Atilla Koç made opening speeches. Following the opening speeches, Minister Binali Yıldırım started the representative groundbreaking ceremony held in Kemer, the first station of Turkish Railways, and the restoration work was completed. The laying of the first rail was monitored from Ankara Train Station with a tele-conference connection.

Artistic events

In 1990, the Railway Art Theater, which was founded by Metin Taşdemir and Yusuf Aksongür within the Association of Those Who Love Their Ironmongs, opened its curtains. The first play they played was Hidayet Sayın's “Kurt in the Roots”. The director of the play was Yusuf Aksongür. Theater Group in the process; Wolves in the Roots, The Machine, I Marry My Wife, The Trees Die Standing, Come To Kill Canikom, The Two Depressed, The Misfits, Ah Those Young People, The Painter, Who Will Stop The Pink Train, and Tales With Train. In addition, free theater courses are offered at the Railway Art Theater every year between November and May.

TCDD Museums

Atatürk Residence and Railways Museum in the National Struggle

Opened to visitors on December 24, 1964, the building in which the museum is located was built in 1892 during the construction of the Baghdad Railway and was formerly called the “Steering Building”. It is located within the Ankara Station complex. Upon Atatürk's arrival in Ankara on 27 December 1919, it was allocated for use as the Commander-in-Chief headquarters and residence. Inside this building, Atatürk and his team made very important decisions. Some of these; On October 1, 1921, the negotiations and signing ceremony of the agreement with the French took place in this building, and with the establishment of the Turkish Grand National Assembly on April 23, 1920, the decisions to celebrate this day as April 23 National Sovereignty and Children's Day were made in this building.

TCDD Railways Museum and Art Gallery

The building of the museum, which was restored and opened to visitors by railways architects in 1990, was designed as the "Ankara Hotel" by Kemal Suha Esen, one of the railway architects. However, the building has never been used for this purpose. Before the building was opened to use as a museum, it was used for the purpose of Operation Directorate, Accounting Directorate, Higher Education Student Dormitory, Department Chief, Education and Training Department.

Atatürk Wagon

The wagon, which is the unique example of the White Train that Atatürk used during his country trips between 1935 and 1938; It has been on display at Ankara Station since 1964. It was registered as "Atatürk's cultural asset to be protected" in 1991 by the General Directorate of Monuments and Museums of the Ministry of Culture.

Technical specifications of the wagon:

  • Case: 46.3 tone
  • Length: 14.8 m.
  • Manufacturer: LHV Linke Hofmann-Werke, Breslau, 1935

The wagon used in Atatürk's country trips was also used to transport his body from Izmit to Ankara.

Ankara Open Air Steam Locomotive Museum

The museum located on Celâl Bayar Boulevard Ankara Train Station is an open-air museum. Inside the museum, there are various steam locomotives used by TCDD and retired due to age and technology. It has been moved from its location to another location due to the construction of the station to be built within the scope of the High Speed ​​Train and Başkentray project.

Istanbul Railway Museum

The museum was put into service in 1890 and was opened to visitors on September 23, 2005 in Sirkeci Train Station, designed by German architect and engineer A. Jasmund. Approximately 300 cultural assets are exhibited in the museum.

İzmir Museum and Art Gallery

The building, which hosts the museum, was built as a commodity warehouse by British merchants living in Alsancak in the 19th century. The construction date of the building is even older than 1856, when the construction of the Izmir-Aydin Railway was started. The building was used as the lodging for the director of the Izmir-Aydin Ottoman Railway Company in the 1860s. Following the expropriation of the railways, it was used as a residence with a total of 5 buildings, both large and small, located right next to the building and bearing the same architectural features.The building was organized as a Museum and Art Gallery in 1990 and opened to visitors.

Eskisehir Museum

Located in Eskişehir Train Station, the museum was opened to visitors in 1997 in order to exhibit materials obtained from TÜLOMSAŞ General Directorate and workplaces in Eskişehir.

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