📩 04/01/2023 08:58
Johannes Kepler (born 27 December 1571 - died 15 November 1630), German astronomer, mathematician and astrologer. He is known for Kepler's laws of planetary motion, which he personally created in the scientific revolution of the 17th century, based on his works named "Astronoma Nova", "Harmonic Mundi" and "Copernicus Astronomy Compendium". In addition, these studies provided a basis for Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitational force.
During his career, he taught mathematics at a seminary in Graz, Austria. Prince Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg was also a teacher at the same school. He later became an assistant to the astronomer Tycho Brahe. Later emperor II. During the Rudolf period, he was given the title of "imperial mathematician" and worked as an imperial clerk, and his two heirs, Matthias and II. He also dealt with these tasks in the times of Ferdinand. During this period, he worked as a mathematics teacher and consultant to General Wallenstein in Linz. Besides, he worked on the basic scientific principles of optics; He invented an improved version of a "refracting telescope" called the "Kepler-type telescope" and was mentioned by name in the telescopic inventions of Galileo Galilei, who lived at the same time.
Kepler lived in a period where there was no clear distinction between "astronomy" and "astrology", but a distinct separation between "astronomy" (a branch of mathematics within the humanities) and "physics" (a branch of natural philosophy). Kepler's scholarly work included developments in religious argument and logic. It is his personal belief and faith that cause this scientific thought to have religious content. According to these personal beliefs and beliefs of Kepler, God created the world and nature according to a divine plan of superior intelligence; but according to Kepler, God's superintelligence plan can be explained by natural human thought. Kepler described his new astronomy as "celestial physics". According to Kepler, "Celestial Physics" was prepared as an introduction to Aristotle's "Metaphysics" and as a supplement to Aristotle's "On the Heavens". Thus, Kepler changed the ancient science of "Physical cosmology" known as "astronomy" and instead treated the science of astronomy as universal mathematical physics.
Johannes Kepler was born on December 27, 1571, on the day of the Evangelical John feast day in Weil der Stadt, an independent Imperial city. This city is in the "Stuttgart area" in today's Baden-Württemberg land-state. It is 30 km from the center west of Sttutgart city center. His grandfather, Sebald Kepler, was an innkeeper and once mayor of the city; But when Johannes was born, the fortunes of Kepler's family, who had two older brothers and two sisters, had declined. His father, Heinrich Kepler, was earning a precarious life as a mercenary, and when Johannes was five years old, he left his family and was not heard from. He is believed to have died in the "Eighty Years War" in the Netherlands. Her mother, Katharına Güldenmann, was the daughter of the innkeeper and was a herbology herbalist and a traditional physician who collected herbs for traditional illness and health and sold them as medicine. Because her mother gave birth prematurely, Jonannes spent her infancy and young childhood with very weak illness. Kepler, with his extraordinary, miraculous profound math skills, was reported to entertain his guests at his grandfather's inn with punctual and accurate answers to customers who asked him mathematical questions and problems.
He met astronomy at a young age and devoted his whole life to it. When he was six, his mother took him to a high hill in 1577 to observe the "Great Comet of 1577", which can be seen very clearly in many countries of Europe and Asia. He also observed a Lunar Eclipse event in 1580 when he was 9 years old, and he wrote that he went to a very open countryside for this and that the moon being held turned "very red". However, because Kepler suffered from smallpox in his childhood, his hand was disabled and his eyes were weak. Due to these health barriers, the opportunity to work as an observer in the field of astronomy has been limited.
After graduating from the academic high school, the Latin school and the seminary in Maulbronn, in 1589, Kepler began attending a collage-faculty called the Tübinger Stift at the University of Tübingen. There, he studied philosophy under Vitus Müller and theology under Jacop Heerbrand (he was a student of Philipp Melanchthonat at the University of Wittenberg). Jacop Heerbrand taught theology to Michael Maestlin until he became Chancellor of the University of Tübingen in 1590. Since he was a very good mathematician, Kepler immediately showed himself at the university, as Anyi was understood to be a very talented astrologer horoscope interpreter at the time, he made a name for looking at the horoscopes of his university friends. With the teachings of Tübingen professor Michael Maestlin, he learned both Ptolemy's system of geocentric geocentrism and Copernicus's heliocentric system of planetary motion. At that time he considered the heliocentric system suitable. In one of the scientific debates held at the university, Kepler defended the theories of the heliocentric heliocentric system, both theoretically and religiously, and claimed that the main source of his movements in the Universe was the sun. Kepler wanted to become a Protestant pastor when he graduated from university. But at the end of his university studies, at the age of 1594 in April 25, Kepler was advised to teach mathematics and astronomy from the Protestant school in Graz, a very prestigious academic school (later converted to the University of Graz) and accepted this teaching position.
Johannes Kepler's first fundamental astronomical work, Mysterium Cosmographicum (The Cosmographic Mystery), is his first published defense of the Copernican system. Kepler proposed that on July 19, 1595, when he was teaching in Graz, periodic conjunctions of Saturn and Jupiter would appear in the signs. Kepler noticed that ordinary polygons are connected in precise proportions with a written and a delimited circle that he questioned as the geometric basis of the universe. After failing to find a single array of polygons that fit his astronomical observations (extra planets also join the system), Kepler began experimenting with the three-dimensional polyhedra. One of each Platonic solid is written uniquely and bounded by spherical celestial bodies that interlock these solid bodies and enclose each of them in the sphere, each producing 6 layers (6 known planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn). These solids, when ordered neatly, are octagonal, twentyfaced, dodecahedron, regular tetrahedron and cube. Kepler found that the spheres were located within the circle surrounding the Sun at certain intervals (within precise limits pertaining to astronomical observations) in proportion to the size of each planet's orbit. Kepler also developed a formula for the length of the orbital period of each planet's sphere: the increase in orbital periods from the inner planet to the outer planet is twice the radius of the sphere. However, Kepler later rejected this formula on the grounds of imprecision.
As stated in the title, Kepler thought that God had revealed his geometric plan for the universe. Much of Kepler's enthusiasm for Copernican systems stemmed from his theological belief that he believed there was a link between physics and the Religious view (that the Sun represents the Father, the system of stars represents the Son, and the universe in which the space represents the Holy Spirit) is a reflection of God. The Mysterium Sketch contains extended chapters on the reconciliation of the heliocentrism supporting geocentrism with biblical fragments.
The Mysterium was printed in 1596, and Kepler took copies and began sending it to prominent astronomers and supporters in 1597. It was not widely read, but it made Kepler famous as a very talented astronomer. An enthusiastic sacrifice, strong supporters, and this man who kept his position in Graz opened an important door for the patronage system to come.
Although details were modified in his later work, Kepler never gave up the Platonist polyhedron-spherical cosmology of Mysterium Cosmographicum. His later fundamental astronomical work only needed some improvement: calculating the more precise inner and outer dimensions for spheres by calculating the eccentricity of planetary orbits. In 1621, Kepler published the second, improved edition, half as long as the Mysterium, detailing the corrections and improvements made 25 years after the first edition.
In terms of the influence of Mysterium, it can be seen as important as the first modernization of the theory put forward by Nicolaus Copernicus in "De Revolutionibus". While Copernicus is proposed as a pioneer in the heliocentric system in this book, he turned to Ptolemaic instruments (eccentric and eccentric frames) to explain the change in orbital velocities of the planets. He also referenced the orbital center of the earth to aid the calculation instead of the sun and not to confuse the reader by deviating too much from Ptolemy. Modern astronomy owes much to the "Mysterium Cosmographicum" for being the first step in clearing the remains of the Copernican system from Ptolemaic theory, apart from the shortcomings in the main thesis.
Barbara Müller and Johannes Kepler
In December 1595, Kepler met for the first time and began courting with 23-year-old widow Barbara Müller, who had a young daughter named Gemma van Dvijneveldt. Müller was the heir to her ex-husband's estates and was also a successful mill owner. His father Jobst initially opposed Kepler's nobility; Although his grandfather's lineage was inherited to him, his poverty was unacceptable. Jobst Kepler softened after completing the Mysterium, but their engagement was prolonged due to the detail of the print. But the church staff who organized the marriage honored Müllers with this agreement. Barbara and Johannes were married on April 27, 1597.
In the early years of marriage, the Kepler had two children (Heinrich and Susanna), but both died in infancy. In 1602, their daughter (Susanna); One of their sons (Friedrich) in 1604; and in 1607 their second son (Ludwig) was born.
After the publication of the Mysterium, with the help of the supervisors of the Graz school, Kepler started a very ambitious program to run its work. He planned four more books: the fixed size of the universe (the Sun and five years); planets and their movements; the physical structure of the planets and the formation of geographic structures (features focused on the Earth); The influence of the sky on the Earth includes atmospheric influence, methorology, and astrology.
Among them Reimarus Ursus (Nicolaus Reimers Bär) - emperor mathematician II. He asked the astronomers to whom he sent the Mysterium, with Rudolph and his arch-rival Tycho Brahe, for their opinion. Ursus did not reply directly, but republished Kepler's letter with Tyco under the name Tychonic system to continue his previous dispute. Despite this black mark, Tycho began to agree with Keplerl, criticizing Kepler's system with harsh but approving criticism. With some objections, Tycho obtained inaccurate numerical data from Copernicus. Through letters, Tycho and Kepler began to discuss the many astronomical problems in Copernican theory that dwell on the moon phenomenon (especially religious competence). But without Tycho's significantly more precise observations, there was no way Kepler could address these issues.
Instead, he turned his attention to "harmony," which is the numerical relationship of chronology and music to the mathematics and physical world, and their astrological consequences. Recognizing that the earth has a soul (the nature of the sun that does not explain how it causes the motion of the planets), he developed a thoughtful system that combines astrological aspects and astronomical distances to weather and earthly phenomena. A new religious tension began to threaten the work situation in Graz, although until 1599 rework was restricted by the uncertainty of the data at hand. In December of that year, Tycho invited Kepler to Prague; On January 1, 1600 (before receiving the invitation), Kepler pinned his hopes on Tycho's patronage that could solve these philosophical even social and financial problems.
Tycho Brahe's work
On February 4, 1600, Kepler met in Benátky nad Jizerou (35 km from Prague), where Tycho Brahe and his assistant Franz Tengnagel and Longomontanus laTycho conducted their new observations. For more than two months ahead of him, he remained a guest conducting Tycho's observations of Mars. Tycho studied Kepler's data cautiously, but was impressed by Kepler's theoretical ideas and soon gave him more access. Kepler wanted to test his theory in the Mysterium Cosmographicum with Mars data, but he calculated that the work would take two years (unless he could copy the data for his own use). With the help of Johannes Jessenius, Kepler began negotiating more formal business deals with Tycho, but this bargain ended when Kepler left Prague on April 6 with an angry argument. Kepler and Tycho soon reconciled and reached an agreement on pay and accommodation in June, and Kepler returned home to gather his family in Graz.
Political and religious difficulties in Graz shattered Kepler's hopes of a quick return to Brahe. Hoping to continue his astronomical work, Archduke had arranged for a meeting with Ferdinand. Finally, Kepler wrote an article dedicated to Ferdinand in which he put forward a force-based theory to explain moon motions: “In Terra inest virtus, quae Lunam ciet” (“There is a force in the world that makes the Moon move”). Although this article did not give him a place in Ferdinand's reign, it detailed a new method he applied in Graz on 10 July for measuring lunar eclipse. These observations formed the basis for his research on the law of optics to peak at Astronomiae Pars Optica.
When he refused to return to Catalysis on August 2, 1600, Kepler and his family were exiled from Graz. A few months later, Kepler returned to Prague where the rest of the house is now. For most of 1601, it was supported directly by Tycho. Tycho was tasked with observing Kepler planets and writing sheds for Tycho's opponents. In September, Tycho got Kepler to be a partner on the commission of a new project (Rudolphine Tables replacing the Prutenic Tables of Erasmus Reinhold) that Kepler presented to the emperor. Two days after Tycho's unexpected death on October 24, 1601, Kepler was appointed the great mathematician heir, who was responsible for completing Tycho's endless work. He spent the most productive period of his life as a great mathematician for the next 11 years.
In October 1604, a new bright evening star (SN 1604) appeared, but Kepler didn't believe the rumors until he saw it himself. Kepler systematically began to observe Novay. Astrologically, this marked the beginning of his fiery trigon at the end of 1603. Two years later, Kepler, who also defined a new star in De Stella Nova, was presented to the emperor as an astrologer and mathematician. While dealing with astrological interpretations that attract skeptical approaches, Kepler addressed the astronomical properties of the star. The birth of a new star implied the changeability of the heavens. In an appendix, Kepler also discussed the work of the last chronology of Polish historian Laurentius Suslyga: He assumed that Suslyga acceptance charts were four years behind, then it was calculated that Bethlehem Star would coincide with the first major link of the previous 800-year cycle.
Dioptrice, Somnium manuscript and other work
Following the completion of Astronoma Nova, many Kepler studies focused on the preparation of the Rudolphine Tables and established a comprehensive table-based ephemerid (featured estimates of the position of stars and planets). Also, the attempt to cooperate with the Italian astronomer failed. Some of his works are related to chronology and he also makes dramatic predictions of astrology and disasters such as Helisaeus Roeslin.
While the physicist Feselius published work to expel all astrology and Roesl's private work from the profession, Kepler and Roeslin published the series in which he attacked and counter-attacked. In the early months of 1610, Galilea Galilei discovered four satellites orbiting Jupiter using his powerful new telescope. After his account with Sidereus Nuncius was published, Galileo liked Kepler's idea to show the reliability of Kepler's observations. Kepler enthusiastically published a short reply, Dissertatio cum Nuncio Sidereo (with Star Messenger Sohbet).
He supported Galileo's observations and proposed various reflections on cosmology and astrology, as well as the telescope for astronomy and optics, and the content and meaning of Galileo's discoveries. Later that year, Kepler provided more support from Galileo, publishing his own telescopic observations of "The moons in Narratio de Jovis Satellitibus". Also, due to Kepler's disappointment, Galileo did not publish any reactions about Astronomia Nova. After hearing of Galileo's telescopic discoveries, Kepler began experimental and theoretical investigations of telescopic optics using a telescope borrowed from the Duke of Cologne, Ernest. The results of the manuscript were completed in September 1610 and published in 1611 as Dioptrice.
Studies in mathematics and physics
That year, as a New Year's gift, he composed a short leaflet entitled Strena Seu de Nive Sexangula (Hexagonal Snow A Christmas Gift) for his friend, Baron von Wackher Wackhenfels, who was a boss at some time. In this treatise he published the first explanation of the hexagonal symmetry of snowflakes and extending the debate into the hypothetical atomistic physical basis for symmetry, then became known as a statement about the most efficient arrangement, which is the Kepler conjecture for packing spheres. Kepler was one of the pioneers of the mathematical applications of infinitesimals, see the law of continuity.
Kepler was convinced that geometric shapes are creative in the decor of the whole world. Harmony sought to explain the proportions of that natural world through music - especially astronomically and astrologically.
Kepler began to explore regular polygons and regular solids, including numbers known as Kepler's solids. From there he extended his harmonic analysis for music, astronomy and meteorology; Harmony originated from the sounds made by the heavenly spirits, and astronomical events are the interaction between these tones and human spirits. 5. At the end of the book, Kepler discusses the relationships between orbital velocity and orbital distance from the Sun in planetary motion. A similar relationship was used by other astronomers, but Tycho refined their new physical significance with his data and his own astronomical theories.
Among other harmonies, Kepler said what is known as the third law of the motion of planets. Although he gives the date of this feast (8 March 1618), he does not give any details about how you reached this conclusion. However, the vast importance of planetary dynamics of this purely kinematic law did not realize until the 1660s.
Adoption of Kepler's theories in astronomy
Kepler's law was not immediately passed. There were many main reasons, including Galileo and Rene Descartes, to completely ignore Kepler's Astronomia Nova. Many spaceologists, including Kepler's teacher, opposed Kepler's entry into physics, including astronomy. Some admitted he was in an acceptable position. Ismael Boulliau accepted elliptical orbits but replaced the Kepler field law.
Many space scientists have tested Kepler's theory and its various modifications, counter-astronomical observations. During the Mercury transit event in 1631, Kepler had uncertain measurements of Mercury and recommended observers to look for daily transits before and after the prescribed date. Pierre Gassendi confirmed Kepler's predicted transit in history. This is the first observation of Mercury transit. But; His attempt to observe the Venus transit failed just a month later due to inaccuracies in the Rudolphine Tables. Gassendi did not realize that most of Europe, including Paris, was not visible. Observing Venus transits in 1639, Jeremiah Horrocks adjusted the parameters of the Keplerian model that predicted transitions using his own observations, and then built the apparatus in the transitional observations. He remained a staunch advocate of the Kepler model.
The "Copernican Astronomy summary" was read by astronomers across Europe, and after Kepler's death this became the main vehicle for disseminating Kepler's ideas. Between 1630 and 1650, the most used astronomy textbook was converted into ellipse-based astronomy. Also, few scientists have accepted his physical basis ideas for celestial motions. This resulted in Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica (1687), in which Newton derived Kepler's laws of planetary motion from a force-based theory of universal gravity.
Historical and cultural heritage
Beyond the role Kepler played in the historical development of astronomy and natural philosophy, it also held an important place in the historiography of philosophy and science. Kepler and his laws of motion became central to astronomy. For example; Jean Etienne Montucla's Historie des Mathematiques (1758) and Jean Baptiste Delambre's Histoire de l'astronomie moderne (1821). This and such records, written with the perspective of enlightenment, refined Kepler's evidence that was not confirmed by metaphysical and religious skepticism, but later Natural philosophers of the Romantic era saw these elements as central to his success. The Influential History of the Inductive Sciences found William Whewell Kepler in 1837 to be the archetype of inductive scientific genius; The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences held Whewell Kepler in 1840 as the embodiment of the most advanced forms of the scientific method. Likewise, Ernst Friendich worked hard to examine Apelt Kepler's early manuscripts.
After Ruya Caricesi was bought by Buyuk Katherina, Kepler became a key to 'Revolution of Sciences'. Seeing Kepler's as part of a unified system of mathematics, aesthetic sensibility, physical idea, and theology, Apelt created the first extended analysis of Kepler's life and work. A number of modern translations of Kepler are about to be completed in the late 19th and early 20th century, and Max Cospar's Kepler biography was published in 1948.  But Alexandre Koyre worked on Kepler, the first milestone in his historical interpretations was the cosmology and influence of Kepler. First-generation professional historians of science of Koyre and others described 'Scientific Revolution' as the central event in the history of science, and Kepler was (perhaps) the central figure in the revolution. has been defined. Koyre has been at the center of the intellectual transformation from ancient to modern worldviews, instead of Kepler's experimental work in their institutionalization.Since the 1960s, Kepler's astrology and meteorology, geometric methods, the role of religious views, literary and rhetorical methods, cultural and philosophy. Including his extensive work he expanded his scholarship volume. Kepler's place in the scientific revolution has generated various philosophical and popular debates. The Sleepwalkers (1959) clearly stated that Keplerin (moral and theological) was the hero of the revolution. Philosophers of science such as Charles Sanders Peirce, Norwood Russell Hanson, Stephen Toulmin, and Karl Popper turned to Kep many times because they found examples in Kepler's work that they could not confuse analogical reasoning, falsification, and many other philosophical concepts. Physicists Wolfgang Pauli and Robert Fludd's primary disagreement is the subject of investigating the effects of analytical psychology on scientific research. Kepler gained a popular image as the symbol of scientific modernization, and Carl So gan described him as the first astrophysicist and the last scientific astrologer.
German composer Paul Hindemith wrote an opera about Kepler entitled Die Harmonie der Welt and produced a symphony of the same name.
On 10 September in Austria, Kepler was featured in one of the motifs of a silver collector's coin and left behind a historical legacy (10 euro Johannes Kepler silver coin. On the back of the coin is a portrait of Kepler where he spent his teaching time in Graz. Kepler personally Prince Hans Ulrich Van Eggenberb The obverse of the coin was probably influenced by the Eggenberg fortress. In front of the coin are nested spheres from the Mysterium Cosmographicum.
In 2009, NASA named a major project mission in astronomy the "Kepler Mission" for Kepler's contributions.
Fiorland National Park in New Zealand has mountains called the "Kepler Mountains" and is also known as the Three Da Walking Trail Kepler Track.
Decided by the American Epsychopathic Church (USA) to call a religious feast day for the church calendar on May 23, Kepler Day.