📩 04/01/2023 08:58
Ibn Sînâ (980 - June 1037) is the father of Persian polymate and polymeric early medicine, considered one of the most important physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Golden Age of Islam.
He was born in 980 in Efşene village (Uzbekistan) near Bukhara and died in 1037 in the city of Hamedan (Iran). He has written 200 books in different fields where he focused on medicine and philosophy. He is known by the Westerners as the founder of modern medieval science, the leader of physicians, and is known as the "Grand Master". He became famous with his book called El-Kanun fi't-Tıb (Law of Medicine), which has been the main source work in the field of medicine for seven centuries, and this book was taught as a basic work in medical science until the middle of the 17th century in European universities.
Ibn-i Sina studied medicine with a doctor named Kuşyar. He wrote about 240 articles on different subjects, 450 of which survive. 150 of the articles we have are on philosophy and 40 of them are on medicine. The most famous of his works are Kitabü'ş-Şifa (The Book of Healing) and El-Kanun fi't-Tıb (Law of Medicine), which is a very extensive study involving philosophy and science. These two works were taught in medieval universities. In fact, this work was a textbook in Montpellier and Louvain until 1650.
Ibn-i Sînâ (known as Avicenna in the West), son of Abdullah Bin Sina, one of the scribes of Samanoğulları palace, took lessons from his father, the famous Bilgin Natili and İsmâil Zâhid. He worked on geometry (especially Euclidean geometry), logic, fiqh, sarf, nahiv, medicine and natural science. After learning Aristotle's philosophy and metaphysics through Farabi's al-Ibane and curing the sick Prince of Bukhara (997), he had the opportunity to benefit from the palace library. When his father died, he received support from Ebu Muhammed from Şiraz in Gürgan (He wrote the Medical Law in Cürcan). He studied the works of all Greek philosophers and Anatolian naturalists known in his age.
Ibn-i Sînâ carried out important works and works in the period known as the Golden Age of Islam, when translations of works from Greek, Persian and Hindi were made and studied intensively. The Samani Dynasty in Khorasan and Central Asia and the Buwayhis in western Iran and Iraq had prepared a very suitable environment for scientific and cultural progress. In this environment, the studies of the Qur'an and hadith advanced a lot. Studies of philosophy, fiqh and kalam were highly developed by Avicenna and his contemporaries. Razi and Al-Farabi provided innovations in the field of medicine and philosophy. Ibn Sina; He had the opportunity to benefit from the magnificent libraries in Balk, Hamedan, Khorasan, Rey and Isfahan.
Ibn-i Sina was born in 980 in Efşene, near Bukhara, in present-day Uzbekistan. (According to the book written by his student al-Juzjanî, the date of birth may be 979.) His father, Abdullah, was a respected scientist from Balkh, the important city of the Samani Empire, and was from the Shia Ismaili sect. His father was in constant contact with the Ismaili geniuses, and for this reason his home had turned into a place where topics such as geometry, philosophy and Indian mathematics were discussed. Beginning to grow up in this environment, Ibn Sînâ first memorized the Quran at the age of 10 and then studied literature, language, fiqh and religious belief. He read Indian arithmetic from Mahmud al-Messâh, fiqh from Hanafi Fiqh Scholar Abu Muhammad İsmâil al-Zâhidden, from Abu Abdullah an-Nâtilî, Isagucî by Porphyry, Euclid's Book of Elements and Ptolemy's Almagestin.
Ibn Sînâ first started working with Emir, whom he recovered from a dangerous disease in 997. The most important award he received for this service was to benefit from the official library of the Samanids as much as he wanted. His enemies accused him of deliberate arson in the fire that broke out in the library soon after.
He lost his father at the age of 22. In December 1004, the Samani Dynasty came to an end. Ibn Sînâ turned down the offer of Gazneli Mahmud and went west to Ürgenç. The vizier here was a science friend and paid him a small salary. Seeking a field of use for his abilities, Ibn-i Sînâ traveled the region step by step from Merv to Nishapur and to the borders of Khorasan. The ruler Qaboos, who was also a poet and scientist and provided shelter for Ibn Sînâ, died in the uprising that broke out during this time. Ibn Sînâ himself had a severe illness. Finally, he met an old friend in Gurgan on the Caspian Sea. He settled next to him and started teaching logic and astronomy in this city. The beginning of the book of law coincides with this period.
Later he worked in Rey and Kazvin. He also continued to write new works. He settled with the governor of Isfahan. Hamadan, who learned this, caught Ibn Sînâ and imprisoned him. After the war ended, he worked with the emir of Hamadan. After a short while, Ibn-i Sînâ; she fled the city in disguise with her brother, a good student, and two slaves, and reached Isfahan, where they were very well received after a fearful journey.
The later years and death
The remaining 10-12 years of Ibn Sînâ passed in the service of Abu Jafar. Here he worked as a doctor, scientific consultant and even participated in battles. During these years, he started studying literature and philology. He suffered a severe colitis attack during a Hamedan expedition. He was barely standing. When he arrived in Hamedan, he did not apply the recommended treatments and surrendered himself to fate. He donated his property to the poor on his deathbed, freed his slaves, and read the Koran every three days until his last day. [Citation needed] He died at the age of 1037-56 in June 57. His grave is in Hamedan.
According to Ibn-i Sînâ, the main subject of metaphysics is God, whose body is absolute, and supreme beings. The body (existing) is divided into three: the possible being or the emerging and then disappearing; possible and necessary existence (universe of universals and laws, being that can exist spontaneously and is required by an external cause); being essentially necessary (Allah). Ibn Sina; He expresses God as the "Wajib-ul-Body" - that is, the existence of which is necessary - and this idea is unique to him.
Ibn Sînâ argued that psychology is a field of knowledge that establishes a connection between metaphysics and physics and benefits from these two sciences, and divided psychology into three main sections: Mental psychology; experimental psychology; mystical or mystical psychology. He suggested that people's souls can be cured with music and developed this method.
According to Ibn-i Sînâ, whose views are different from Aristotle and Fârâbî, there are 5 types of mind; connotation (or 'probable reason' can know the obvious and necessary ones); he-yulâni reason (Provides to know and understand.); holy mind (It is the highest stage of the mind and is not found in all people.); compliant mind (perceives what is in him, the images of the "reasonable" given to him.); de facto reason (grasps "reasonable" s, ie acquired data.). Ibn Sînâ tried to reconcile Plato's idealism with Aristotle's empiricism and to put forward a unifying view of reason.
Classification of sciences
According to Ibn S inâ, sciences are divided into three in terms of matter and form relation: El-ilm ul-esfel (natural sciences or lower sciences) is the science of forms that are not separated from the substance ; mabad-üt-tabia (metaphysics) are the sciences of forms that differ from the matter al-ilm'l-âli (logic or higher sciences); al-ilm ul-evsat (mathematics or middle sciences) is the science of forms that can only be separated from matter in the human mind, sometimes with matter, sometimes separate.
Ibn Sînâ, who influenced most of the Eastern and Western philosophers after him, was also interested in music. Healing and the Law, which is the main work of more than 250 works, has been taught in many universities for many years as the main work of philosophy.
- El-Kanun fi't-Tıb, (d.s), 1593, “The Law in Medicine” (It contains information about the time of medicine. It was taught as a textbook in the West for four hundred years in the Middle Ages. Ten translations were made into Latin.)
- Kitabü'l-Necat, (d.s), 1593, ("The Book of Salvation" is a summary work written on metaphysical subjects.)
- Risale fi-İlmi'l-Ahlak, (d.), 1880, ("Booklet on Morality")
- İşarat ve'l-Tembihat, (d.s), 1892, ("It includes the sections of Logic, Physics and Metaphysics. It consists of 20 chapters.)
- Kitabü'ş-Şifâ, (d.s), 1927, ("It is an eleven-volume work written on Logic, Mathematics, Physics and Metaphysics. It has been translated into Latin many times and read as a textbook."). The Logic section consists of Introduction, Categories, On Interpretation, First Analytics, Second Analytics, Topics, Sophisticated Evidence, Rhetoric and Poetics. The Natural Sciences department consists of Physics, Sky and the World, Occurrence and Degradation, Effects and Passions, Minerology and Meteorology, Psychology, Botany and Biology. The Department of Mathematical Sciences consists of Geometry, Arithmetic, Music and Astronomy books. The twenty-second and final book is Metaphysics.