Who is Al-Jazari?

Who is Al-Jazari?
Who is Al-Jazari?

📩 04/01/2023 08:58

Ebû'l İz İsmail İbni Rezzaz El Jezerî (date of birth 1136, Cizre, Şırnak; date of death 1206, Cizre), Muslim Arab, delusional, inventor and engineer working in the Golden Age of Islam. Al-Jazari, who is considered to have taken the first steps in cybernetics and built and operated the first robot, is thought to be the inspiration for Leonardo da Vinci.

He was born in 1136 in the Tor neighborhood of Cizre. Al-Cezeri, a physicist, robot and matrix scientist, who is considered the founder of the field of cybernetics, died in Cizre in 1206. Taking his nickname from the city where he lived, Al Cezeri completed his education at the Camia Madrasa, focused on physics and mechanics and achieved many firsts and inventions.

In western literature BC. Although it is stated that a steam-powered pigeon was made by the Greek mathematician Archytas in 300 BC, the oldest known written record on robotics belongs to Cezeri.

According to one study, Al-Cezeri was part of a craftsman tradition and therefore was more of an inventor than an inventor, a practical engineer interested in craftsmanship rather than technology, and he invented machines often through trial and error rather than theoretical calculation. According to Otto Mayr, the style of the books is similar to "do it yourself" books in a modern sense.

In terms of world science history, the automatic machines made by Cezeri, who was the first scientist to study in today's cybernetics and robotics, constitute the cornerstones of today's mechanical and cybernetic sciences. He put it forward in his work titled “The Book Containing the Use of Mechanical Movements in Engineering” (El Câmi-u'l Beyn'el İlmî ve El-Amelî'en Nâfi fî Sınâ'ati'l Hiyel). In this book, in which he shows the principles of using more than 50 devices and the possibilities of using them with drawings, Cezeri says that every technical science that is not translated into practice will fall between right and wrong. Although the original copy of this book has not survived until today, some copies are available in some libraries and museums in North America and Europe. Original works describing several of his inventions written by himself are found in various parts of the world. The oldest manuscript to date is his work titled "The book about the knowledge of extraordinary mechanical devices" in the Topkapı Palace in Istanbul. [15] Other works are; It is located in the Bodleian Library, Leiden University Library, Chester Beatty Library and several other libraries and museums in Europe.

Briefly known as Kitab-ül Hiyel, his work consists of six chapters. In the first part, ten figures about how to make binkam (water clock) and finkan (water clock with oil lamp) in hour-i müsteviye and hour-ı zamaniye; in the second part, ten figures about making various pots, and in the third part, about making pitchers and bowls related to cupping and ablution; in the fourth chapter, ten figures about pools and fountains and music vending machines; in the fifth chapter, 5 figures about devices that raise water from a shallow well or a flowing river; In the 6th section, there are 5 figures about the construction of various different shapes.

Another method used by Al-Jazari, who conducted experimental studies rather than theoretical studies, was to construct paper models of the devices he would make beforehand and make use of the rules of geometry. Using a similar mechanism working with the same system centuries before the first calculator at the time he developed, Cezeri not only established automatic systems, but also managed to balance between the systems that worked automatically.

Cezeri developed the automatic maid who decides when to pour water according to the water level in different reservoirs and when to serve fruit and drinks 600 years before Jacquard's automatic weaving loom, which is considered the first of automatic controlled machines. In some of his machines, Cezeri turned towards a system of balancing and moving with hydro-mechanical effects, and in some he tried to establish a mutual influence system by using gear wheels between buoys and pulleys. Al-Jazari's most important contribution to automation is that he creates a balance that balances and adjusts himself by taking advantage of the effect of water power and pressure after self-operating automatic systems.

Another work of physicist and mechanic Al Cezeri is the famous sundial of Diyarbakır Grand Mosque.


  • Kitāb fi ma-'rifat al-Hiyal al-handasiyya completed this work in 1206.
  • Kitâb-ul-Câmi Beyn-el-İlmi vel-Amel-in-Nâfî fi Sınâat-il-Hiyel, "Useful Information and Applications in Machine Building"

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