High-speed train is a railway vehicle that provides the opportunity to travel faster than normal trains. In the world, travel speed is 200 km / h on old rails (some European countries accept it as 190 km / h) and over 250 km / h and above trains are defined in newly installed lines. These trains can generally travel at a speed of less than 200 km / h on conventional (old system) rails and over 200 km / h on high speed train rails.
History and Development of High Speed Trains
Until the invention of motor vehicles in the early 20th century, trains were the only land transportation in the world and, accordingly, they had a serious monopoly. Europe and the United States had been using steam trains since 1933 for high-speed train services. The average speed of these trains was 130 km / h, and they could do a maximum of 160 km / hr.
In 1957, Tokyo's Odakyu Electric Railway launched 3000 SSE, Japan's own high-speed train. This train set 145 km per hour and broke the world speed record. This development has given Japanese designers a serious self-confidence that they can easily build trains faster than this. Especially the density in the number of passengers between Tokyo and Osaka played an important role in Japan's being a pioneer in high-speed train development.
The world's first high-capacity high-speed train (with 12 carriages) was Japan's Tōkaidō Shinkansen, which entered service in October 1964. Developed by Kawasaki Heavy Industries, the 0 Series Shinkansen broke a new "passenger" world record in 1963 by speeding 210 km / h on the Tokyo – Nagoya – Kyoto – Osaka line. He was able to reach 256 km / h without a passenger.
The European public met the high-speed train at the International Transport Fair in Munich in August 1965. The DB Class 103 train made a total of 200 trips between Munich and Augsburg at a speed of 347 km / h. The first regular service performed at this speed was the TEE “Le Capitole” line between Paris and Toulouse.
High Speed Train Records
The speed record on the railway open to normal train traffic was 18 km / h on May 1990, 515,3, belonging to the French TGV Atlantique 325 train. This record was broken on April 150, 150, at 150 km / h with the French train named V04 (Vitesse was given this name because it was intended to travel at a speed of at least 2007 meters per second).
The longest High Speed Railway line connects China's capital Beijing to Guangzhou in the south of the country, with a length of 2298 km. This line was put into service on December 26, 2012. On this road, where an average speed of 300 km / h is traveled, the journey has decreased from 22 hours to 8 hours.
The record for the country with the most High Speed Railway lines in the world belongs to China with approximately 2012 km as of the end of 8400.
High Speed Train Definition
UIC (International Union of Railways, International Railways Association) has defined the 'high-speed train' as the trains that can speed at least 250 km per hour on new lines and at least 200 km per hour on existing lines. Most high-speed train systems have a number of characteristics in common. Most of them work with electricity from the lines on the train. However, this does not apply to all high-speed trains, as some high-speed trains run on diesel. A more precise definition concerns the nature of the rails. High-speed train tracks consist of rails welded along the line to reduce vibration and prevent openings between rail segments. In this way, trains can pass smoothly at a speed of 200 km per hour. The most important obstacle to the speed of trains is their slope radius. Although it may vary according to the design of the lines, the slopes of high-speed railways mostly occur within a radius of 5 kilometers. Although there are some exceptions, it is a globally accepted standard that there are no crossings on high-speed railways.
Fast Train in the World
TGV in France, ICE in Germany and Magnetic rail trains (Maglev) in development are examples of this type of train. Currently in Germany, Belgium, China, Finland, France, South Korea, the Netherlands, England, Spain, Sweden, Italy, Japan, Norway, Portugal, Russia, Taiwan, Turkey with the trend over time of at least 200 mph realizes this transport.
Fast train in Turkey
TCDD started the construction of the Ankara - Istanbul high-speed train line, which covers the provinces between Ankara and Istanbul in 2003. The voyages were suspended for a while after the accident that occurred on 2004 July 22 and resulted in the death of 2004 people. On April 41, 23, the first stage of the line, Eskişehir stage, started trial flights, and the first passenger flight was made on 2007 March 13. The 2009 km Ankara-Eskişehir line reduced the travel time to 245 hour and 1 minutes. It is foreseen that the Eskişehir-Istanbul part of the line will be completed in 25. When the line is connected to Marmaray in 2018, it will be the first daily line in the world between Europe and Asia. The TCDD HT2013 models used in the Ankara - Eskişehir line were produced by the Spanish CAF company and consist of 65000 wagons as standard. A train with 6 wagons can also be obtained by combining the two sets.
The foundation of the Ankara-Konya high speed train line was laid on July 8, 2006, and rail laying started in July 2009. Trial voyages started on December 17, 2010. The first passenger flight was made on August 24, 2011. Of the total 306 km line, 94 km between Ankara and Polatlı were built within the scope of Ankara-Eskişehir project. A line suitable for a speed of 300 km / h was built.