Muhammed Celâleddîn-i Rumi, or shortly known as Mevlânâ, 30 September 1207 - 17 December 1273), Persian Sunni Muslim poet, conqueror, scholar, theologian and Sufi mystic who lived in the 13th century. His influence was not limited to one nation or ethnic identity, but reached many different nations; Its spiritual heritage has been embraced by Iranians, Tajiks, Turks, Greeks, Pashtuns, Central Asian Muslims and South Asian Muslims, and has been appreciated for over seven centuries. His poems have been translated into dozens of languages around the world many times and from time to time turned into a variety of different formats. Thanks to his influence that transcends the continent, he became the "best known and best selling poet" in the USA today.
Mevlânâ mostly wrote his works in Persian, but besides this, he rarely preferred to use Turkish, Arabic and Greek. Mesnevi, which he wrote in Konya, has been accepted as one of the greatest poems written in Persian language. His works, in their original form, are still read today in Greater Iran and in Persian-speaking places. The translations of his works, especially Turkey, Azerbaijan, the United States and is read widely in South Asia.
Mevlânâ was born on September 30, 1207 in the town of Vahş, in the Balkh region of Khorasan, within the borders of Afghanistan. Her mother, Mümine Hatun, daughter of Belh Emir Rükneddin; Her paternal grandmother was Melîke-i Cihan Emetullah Sultan, the Persian Princess from the Harezmşahlar dynasty.
His father, Muhammed Bahâeddin Veled, known as “the sultan of scholars”; His grandfather was Hüseyin Hatîbî, son of Ahmed Hatîbî. Sources explain the title of Sultânü'l-Ulemâ with Turkish traditions. Its ethnic origin is controversial; There are opinions that he is Persian, Tajik or Turkish.
Mevlana was the son of Bahaeddin Veled, who was known as Sultan-ul Ulema (Sultan of the Scholars), who taught in the city of Balkh, one of the Islamic cultural centers of the period. One year after the death of his father, Bahaeddin Veled, Mevlânâ came under the spiritual training of Seyyid Burhaneddin, who came to Konya in 1232 and served him for nine years. He died in 1273.
Mevlânâ gave his name as Muhammed bin Muhammed bin Hüseyin el-Belhi in his book called Mesnevî. The names of Muhammad in here are the names of his father and grandfather, while Balkhi is related to the city of his birth, Belh. His nickname is Celaleddin. The title of "Mawlana" in the meaning of "our Lord" has been said to glorify him. His other nickname, Hudâvendigar, was attached to Mevlânâ by his father and means “sultan”. Mevlânâ is referred to as Belhi relative to the city he was born in, and is also called Rumi, in reference to the Anatolia where he lived. He was also known as Molla Hünkâr and Mollâ-yı Rûm because of his professorship.
Beliefs and teachings
Like all other Sufis, the basic doctrine of Celâleddîn-i Rûmî is organized around the idea of oneness. Celalettin Rumi came to the forefront with his love for his Lord, considering his connection to his Lord. [Citation needed]
The period until his father's death
Harzemshah rulers were always worried about the influence of Bahaeddin Veled on the people. Because he was extremely nice to people, he also always gave them interpretations that they could understand, and he never got into philosophical discussions in his lectures. According to the legend, Bahaeddin Veled leaves his country after an incident between Bahaeddin Veled and the ruler of the Khorezm, Alaeddin Muhammed Tökiş (or Tekish); One day, Bahaeddin Veled, in his lesson, violently fought philosophers and philosophers, accusing them of dealing with bid'ahs that do not exist in the religion of Islam. The famous philosopher Fahrettin Razî was very angry with this and complained to Muhammed Tökiş. The ruler regarded Razi very much and gave him special respect. When Razi's warnings and the public's interest and respect for Bahaeddin Veled came together, Tökiş, who doubted his own place, sent the keys of the city to Sultanü'l Ulema and said: If our Sheikh accepts the country of Balkh from today, the sultanate, the lands and the soldiers will be his let me go to another country. I should go there and settle because it is not right to have two sultans in a country. Praise be to Allah that two kinds of sultanates were given to him. The first is the world and the second is the reign of the hereafter. If they gave us this world sovereignty and renounced it, it would be a great help and great grace. Bahaeddin Veled said, "Say hello to the sultan of Islam, the mortal countries, soldiers, treasures, thrones and fortunes of this world are worthy of the sultans. We are dervishes, the country and the sultanate do not suit us." she said and decided to leave. Although the sultan was very sorry, no one could convince Bahaeddin Veled (1212 or 1213).
The famous Sheikh Ferîdüddîn-i Attâr met them in the city of Nişapur. Speeches that little Celâleddîn also listened to were among them. Attâr gave his famous book Esrarname (Book of Secrets) as a gift to Celâleddîn and while leaving them, referring to the little Celaleddin, he said "a sea has fallen behind a river." He made a statement to Bahaeddin Veled saying, “I hope your son will set fire to the hearts of the people of the world and burn them in the near future” (Mevlânâ always carried the Esrarname with him, and he frequently mentioned Attâr and his stories in his Mesnevi).
The party stayed in Baghdad for three days; then he turned to Arabia for pilgrimage. Returning from the pilgrimage, he passed from Damascus to Anatolia and settled in Erzincan, Akşehir, Larende (today Karaman). This stay lasted seven years. Celalettin, who was eighteen years old, married Gevher Hatun, the daughter of Lala Şerafettin from Samarkand. Their sons Mehmet Bahaeddin (Sultan Veled) and Alaeddin Mehmet were born in Larende. Seljuk Sultan Alaeddin Keykubat finally agreed to settle Bahaeddin Veled and Celâleddîn in Konya. He greeted them on the road. He hosted in Altınapa Madrasa. First of all, the ruler, the palace men, the army leaders, the madrasahs and the people were attached to Bahaeddin Veled with great respect and became his disciple. Bahaeddin Veled died in Konya in 1231 and was buried in a place called rose garden in the Seljuk Palace. The monarch did not sit on his throne for a week in mourning. Forty days, food was distributed for him in the almshouses.
The period after his father's death
His father's will, the order of the Seljuk sultan and the insistence of Bahaeddin Veled's followers, took the place of Celâleddîn's father. He gave lectures, sermons and fatwa for one year. Later, he met Seyyid Burhaneddin Muhakkik Şems-i Tebrizî from Tabriz, one of his father's students. According to what Celaleddin's son Sultan Veled tells in his book Ibtidaname (The Beginning Book), Burhaneddin put the young Celaleddîn to the exam in the Islamic sciences of that age at this meeting in Konya; after his success, “you have no spouse in knowledge; you are truly a distinguished man. However, your father was a good man; you stay (promise) you are the people. Leave Kal, have the state like him. "Work on it, and then you will be its true heir, only then can you light the realm like the Sun". After this warning, Celâleddîn was a disciple of Burhaneddin for 9 years, and he received a sect education called seyr-û sulûk. He completed his education in Aleppo and Damascus madrasahs, on his way back in Konya under the supervision of his teacher Tabrizi, he suffered three times in a row and started to obey (all kinds of fasting).
Contrary to the wish of his teacher Celalettin, he left Konya and went to Kayseri and died there in 1241. Celâleddîn could not forget his teacher. He collected his books and lecture notes. Fihi-Ma Fihadlı, which means whatever is inside, frequently quoted from his teacher. He taught fiqh and religious science at the madrasa for five years, and continued his preaching and guidance.
Connecting to Shams Tabrizi
In 1244, a traveler dressed in black from head to toe landed in Konya's famous Sugar Merchants Inn (Şeker Furuşan). His name was Şemsettin Muhammed Tabrizi (Shams from Tabriz). According to the common belief, he was the disciple of an Umm sheikh named Abu Bakr Selebaf. He said he was a traveling merchant. According to what Hacı Bektaş Veli later told in his book "Makalat" (Words), he had a search. He would find what he was looking for in Konya, his heart was saying that. The journey and search was over. At the end of the class hour, he set out for İplikçi Madrasa and found Mevlânâ on his horse with his danişments. Holding the reins of the horse, he asked him:
- O scholars scholar, tell me, is Mohammed great or is Beyâzîd Bistâmî? "
Mevlânâ was very impressed by this strange passenger who crossed his path and was surprised by the question he asked:
- How is that question? " he roared. “He is the last of the prophets; Would it be the word of Beyâzîd Bistâmî with him? "
Upon this, Shams of Tabriz said:
- Why does Muhammad say “My heart will rust, so I ask my Lord seventy times a day”, and Beyâzîd says “I keep myself away from incomplete attributes, there is no entity other than God in my robe”; what do you say about this?"
Mevlânâ answered this question as follows:
- Muhammad was more than seventy times a day. When he reached the glory of each place, he was asking for the insufficiency of his previous knowledge of the place and level. However, Beyâzîd was satisfied with the greatness of the place he had reached and passed out, his power was limited; that's how he spoke for him ”.
Shams of Tabriz shouted "Allah, Allah" in response to this comment and embraced him. Yes, it was him he was looking for. Sources named the place of this meeting as Merec-el Bahrain (the point where the two seas meet).
From there, they went to the cell (room in the madrasah) of Selahaddin Zerkub, one of Mevlana's distinguished disciples, and became seclusion (a certain solitude for two). This period of seclusion was so long that sources mention 40 days to 6 months. Regardless of the duration, a great change took place in Mevlânâ's life at this time, and a brand new personality and a brand new appearance emerged. Mevlânâ had abandoned his sermons, lessons, duties, obligations, in short, every behavior, every action. He left aside the books he read every day and did not look for his friends and followers. In almost every part of Konya, there was an air of protest and rebellion against this new situation. Who was this dervish? What did he want? How did he come between Mevlana and his admirers, how he made him forget all his duties. Complaints and reproaches reached such a degree that some even threatened Shams from Tabriz with death. Things look such a sad look kazanOne day, Shams from Tabriz, who was very bored, recited a verse from the Qur'an to Mevlana. Verse, This is the separation between you and me. It meant (Surah Kahf, verse 78). This separation took place and Shams from Tabriz left Konya unannounced one night (1245). Mevlânâ, who was extremely affected by the departure of Shams from Tabriz, did not want to see anyone, did not accept anyone, cut off without eating or drinking, completely withdrawn from the sema assemblies and friendly meetings. He sang ghazals full of longing and love, and sought Shams from Tabriz through the messengers he sent wherever he could go. While some of the followers felt remorse and apologized to Mevlana, some of them were completely angry and resentful of Shams from Tabriz. Finally it was learned that he was in Damascus. Sultan Veled and about twenty of his friends rushed to Damascus to fetch Shams from Tabriz. They presented the ghazals that Mevlânâ had begged for his return. Shams from Tabriz did not break Sultan Veled's requests. When he returned to Konya, there was a short-lived peace; Those who were against him came and apologized. But Mevlana and Shams from Tabriz still maintained their old order. However, this situation did not last long. Dervishes were trying to keep Mevlana away from Shams from Tabriz. The people, too, were angry that Rumi stopped giving lectures and preaching after Shams from Tabriz came, started sema and raksa, changed the clothes typical of fiqh scholars and wore an Indian-colored cardigan and a honey-colored cone. This time, Mevlana's second son Alaeddin Çelebi was among those who united against Shams from Tabriz.
In the end, Shams of Tabriz, whose patience was exhausted, said, “This time I will go so that nobody will know where I am” and disappeared one day in 1247 (but Eflaki claims that he was not lost and was killed by a group including Mevlana's son Alaeddin). According to Sultan Veled's words, Mevlana was almost mad; but in the end he gave up hope that he would come again, and returned to his lessons, his friends, his work. The tomb of Shams of Tabriz is in Hacı Bektaş Dervish Lodge next to other Khorasan Alperens.
Spelling of Selahattin Zerküb and Mesnevi
During this period, Mevlânâ had the experience of identifying himself with Şems-i Tebrizi (this is also evident from the use of the name of Şems, although some ghazals should use his name in the crown couplet). At the same time, Mevlânâ had chosen Selahattin Zerküb as his closest friend (the friend who shared the same state). He was relieving Şems' pain of absence with Selahattin Zerküb, whom he identified with. Selahattin was a virtuous jeweler who could not read and write. In a short time, the followers also targeted Selahattin instead of Şems. However, Mevlana and Selahattin did not mind the reaction against them. Selahattin's daughter "Fatma Hatun" and Sultan Veled were married.
Mevlânâ and Selahattin were together for ten years. There were attempts to kill Selahattin, and one day, the rumor that Selahattin asked Mevlânâ "to get rid of this body prison" was spread; Selahattin died three days later (December 1258). He had bequeathed that Selahattin's corpse should be lifted not by crying, but by playing neys and kudüm, with joy and enthusiasm.
After Selahattin's death, Hüsamettin Çelebi took his place. Hüsamettin was a descendant of Ebu'l Vefa Kürdi, the founder of Vefaiyye sect and known as Tacu'l Arifin, and their grandfather migrated from Urmiye and settled in Konya. Hüsamettin's father was the head of the Konya region ahis. For him, Hüsamettin Ahi was known as the Turkish son. He was a wealthy person and after he became a disciple of Mevlana, he spent all of his wealth for his followers. Their relationship lasted ten years until Mevlânâ's death. He was also the sheikh of the Vizier Ziyaeddin tekke and thus had two different lodges.
Mesnevî-i Manevî (Mesnevi), which is accepted as the most important and biggest work of Islamic Sufism, was written by Hüsamettin Çelebi. One day together sohbet Çelebi complained about a subject and said, “the disciples”, “they either read the book of Judge Senaî called Hadika to learn something in the way of Sufism, or Attâr's“ Divinity ”and“ Logic-ut-Tayr ”(Kuş They are reading the language. However, if we had an educational book, everyone would read it and learn the divine truths firsthand. " While Hüsamettin Çelebi was finishing his words, he handed his young friend a paper twisted between the layers of Mevlana's turban; The famous first 18 couplets of Mesnevî were written and the teacher said to his disciple: "I started, I will tell if you write the rest."
This work took years. The work was a whole of 25.700 volumes consisting of 6 couplets. He explained the teachings of Sufism through various stories and explained the principles of Sufism while interpreting the events. When the Mesnevi was finished, Mevlânâ, who was now quite old, was tired and his health also deteriorated. He died on 17 December 1273. December 17, the day on which Mevlânâ passed away, is called Seb-i Arûs, which means the wedding night and the day of reuniting with his beloved Lord.
When his first wife Gevher Hatun died, Mevlânâ married Gera Hatun for the second time in Konya and had a son named Muzafferettin Alim Çelebi and a daughter named Fatma Melike Hatun. Çelebiler, descendants of Mevlana, are generally the grandchildren of Feridun Ulu Arif Çelebi, the son of Sultan Veled; The grandchildren of Fatma Melike Hatun are known as İnas Çelebi among the Mevlevi.
- Great Divan "Divan-ı Kebir"
- Fihi Ma-Fih "Whatever is in it"
- Mecalis-i Seb'a "The 7 sermons of Mevlana"
- Letter "Letters"