Uludag, Bursa province within the borders of 2.543 m altitude with mountains and nature of Turkey's largest winter sports center. Uludag; It is the highest mountain in the Marmara Region. The length of Uludağ, extending in the northwest-southeast direction, reaches 40 km. Its width is 15-20 km. The slopes of this mountain, which has a collective and imposing appearance, overlooking Bursa, are gradual, and the sides facing Orhaneli to the south are flat and steeper. The highest point is Uludağ Tepe (2.543 m) located in the lakes region. When approaching Bursa from afar and in the hotels region, the high hill is generally perceived as a peak. However, the name of the hill that looks like the Summit is Monk Hill and its height is 2.486 m. Uludağ Tepe (2.543 m) It is located 5 km southeast of Monk Hill. On the north side of the mountain, there are the plateaus of Sarıalan, Kirazlı, Kadı and Sobra.
In his book Herodotus, written by Herodotus (490-420 BC), one of the first historians of antiquity, Uludağ is referred to as “Olympos” and tells about the tragedy of Atys, the son of Lydia king Kroisos in Olympos. Geography born in Amasya, 400 years after Herodotus, Strabon (64 BC-21 BC), is referred to as Uludağ, Olympos and Mysia Olympos in his book titled Geography. Strabo; He states that the original name "Mysia" means hornbeam in the Lydia. After the official religion became Christianity in the Roman Empire, the first monasteries where monks lived in Uludağ began to be built and the monasteries rose to the highest level in the 17th century. 3 monasteries have been established in the valley and hills between Nilüfer stream and Deliçay in Uludağ. Orhan Gazi received Bursa after a long siege and while some of the monasteries where the monks lived on the mountain were abandoned, some of them were replaced by Muslim dervishes such as Doğlu Baba, Geyikli Baba and Abdal Murat. After the conquest of Bursa, the Turks named the mountain “Monk Mountain”. German traveler Reinhold Lubenau Uludağ, who came to Bursa in the 8th century, stated that after the conquest of the Turks, monks climbed up the mountain for worship only during the day and that monasteries were built with stone walls without using mortar. "Olympos Mysios" or "Monk Mountain" was renamed "Uludağ" in 28 with the initiatives of Bursa Province Geography Society and the proposal of Osman Şevki Bey.
In 1933, a hotel and a regular road were built in Uludağ, thus Uludağ has become a center for winter ski sports. Regular bus services have also increased the interest here. This road, which was later covered with asphalt, directly connects all settlements of Uludağ except Bursa, to Bursa. The modern mountain resort of Uludag, Turkey's first cable car service opened in 1963, the cableway Bursa, the fourth largest city in that it has been the center of Bursa, which is right next to the mountain and winter tourism. Uludag, Turkey's largest ski resort. The suitability of the road condition, the presence of snow in the long winter season (October-April), unique sights attract tourists here. The view of Istanbul, the Marmara sea and the nearby places from the summit of the mountain in the open air gives a special feature here. Hot springs have been formed here due to the presence of hot springs in the eastern and northern skirts near the Bursa Plain. These hot springs in the Çekirge district of Bursa are healing for many diseases. The cable car was completely renovated in 2014 and extended to the Kurbağakaya (Hotels) region. There are also summer camps organized by Kızılay Association every summer in Sarıalan, which is the intermediate station of the cable car, and in Çobankaya, which is reached by a chairlift from Sarıalan. The old senatorium building in Kirazlıyayla is currently used as a hotel. There are 15 public and private public accommodation facilities in Uludağ. There are many chair lifts and teleski lines belonging to them.
Climate and vegetation (flora)
Traces of old glaciers are found in the high places of Uludağ. Aynalıgöl, Karagöl and Kilimligöl glacial lakes in the north of Karatepe are the most important of these traces. The white snow piles of these lakes add beauty to the beauty of these lakes. There are permanent snow layers in the northern basin under Uludağ Tepe (2543 m), the Summit of Uludağ. Turkey deploys in the most low with permanent snow.
In Uludağ, which rises around the depression areas around it, mineral and mineral vein deposits are found between the layers. Turkey's significant tungsten deposit is located here. Its climate is high mountain. Snowfall and amount increases as you go up high. Depending on the height, the temperature decreases. Over 1700 m of snow occurs in the winter from 150 cm to 400 cm at the end of February. Many streams in deep valleys originating from Uludağ reach Göksu with the Nilüfer Stream.
Uludağ is one of the rare places in terms of vegetative wealth. The awakening, which started in the lower ranks in March, continues at the summit throughout the summer. Especially on the mountain, which is located on the forest belt and known as barren by many people, rare plant species specific to this region are spreading.
- From 350 m: laurel, olive, tar successor, hazelnut, laden, shrub, red pine, maquis and shrub areas,
- Between 350-700 m: chestnut, akçakesme, redbud, big nuts, mountain strawberries, olives, mullein, Crete spruce, thuja oak, hornbeam, cranberry, hawthorn, deer, harp, wild bay, elm, beech, aspen, larch,
- Between 700 and 1000 m: chestnut, beech, sessile oak, aspen, larch, or cranberry, hawthorn, deer, medlar,
- From 1000-1050 meters: beech forests reach up to 1500 meters.
- Between 1500 and 2100 m: Uludag fir, dwarf juniper, blueberry, bearberry, wild rose, deer spur, shepherd's grape, willow, larch, beech, hornbeam, aspen, sync, yogurt, thyme, beetle, musk onion, chicory , spring star, many-flowered poppy, wild apple.
Alpine plants, represented by scotch pine, largely juniper after 2100 m, herbaceous species up to 2300 m, are dominant among the larch forests. Oak, chestnut, sycamore, walnut trees, Mediterranean plants are found at 300-400 m, and moist forest plants are found higher up.
The climate of the mountain shows gradual changes from the lower levels to the summit. The transition type of the Black Sea climate and the Mediterranean climate at the lower levels are observed. It does not have a dry climate in the Mediterranean in summer. Towards the summit, it turns into a humid micro thermal climate type, while the harsh weather conditions are observed at high altitudes in winters. It is located in the first family of the Eastern Mediterranean climate group. Annual average temperature decreases towards the summit and precipitation increases. The average temperature of 100 ° C annually in Bursa (14,6 m) and the annual total precipitation of 696,3 mm are 1620 ° C and 5,5 mm at the Sarıalan meteorology station (1252,1 m) on the northern slope of Uludağ, Uludağ Zirve (hotels) reaches 1877 ° C and 4,6 mm at the meteorology station (1483,6 m). Especially on the north-facing side, a climate similar to the black sea climate is observed. Orographic precipitation (slope precipitation) is observed in the summer in Sarıalan, Bakacak and Çobankaya. While 14,3% of annual precipitation falls in the summer in Sarıalan, this rate drops to 10,9% in Uludağ hotels and 10,4% in Bursa. The number of snowy days also increases towards the summit. While the number of snowy days in Bursa is 7,5 days and the number of snow-covered days is 9,4 days, the number of snowy days in Sarıalanda (1620 m) is 48,9 days and the number of days covered with snow is 109,9 days, in Uludağ hotels (1877 m ) The number of snowy days reaches 67,5 days and the number of days covered with snow reaches 179,3 days. The highest snow thickness observed in Uludağ is 430 cm. The highest snow thicknesses are generally reached in March. Snowfall can be observed in the hotels area between September and June. But mainly snowfalls begin in October and continue at intervals until May. The thickness suitable for skiing is generally reached between 25 November and 15 December, and it lasts from 15 April to 1 May, depending on the precipitation. Considering the average statistical data for skiing, the average number of frosty days is 144,7 days and the number of days with the highest temperature below 0 is 54,9 days. The most suitable temperatures for skiing are observed between December and the end of March.
Uludağ is a height where glacier formations were first found in Küçükasya. Indeed, the traces of glacial times in our country were first found in Uludağ and in 1904. The glacial traces of the pleistocene encountered on Uludağ are 200 - 300 m, extending from northwest to southeast between the peaks and the high plateau plain. It consists of circuses carved on the steep wall of relative height. The circus is lined from northwest to southeast, the most prominent element of morphology in the northern part of Uludağ's peak sub-district. We examine them in three teams according to their positions: a) Western group, b) Middle group, c) Eastern group.
a) Circus group in the west
There are two circus lakes included in this group. Koğukdere Lake and Çaylıdere Lake are located. These two lakes are also called "Twin Circus Lake". These circuses are located just north of 2500-meter Sığaktepe. The dimensions of both circuses are almost the same, approximately 300 - 400 m. and the floor elevations are 2200 meters.
b) Central circus group
This group includes Heybeli Lake and Icy Lake. It was located in the central part of the steep north wall of the peak township of Uludağ. Among the circuses included in this group, while small and low ridges consist entirely of marble, small karstic pits on the one hand and hump rock-like shapes on the other hand draw attention.
c) Circus group in the east
This group, which constitutes the most spectacular and most beautiful circuses of Uludağ, constitutes three circuses. These circuses, the highest point of the mass, gnawed on the northern slopes of Karatepe (2550 meters), are formed by a lake named Aynalı, Karagöl and Kilimli from west to east.
Aynalıgöl circus, which is located in the most western part of these, is in the shape of a large horseshoe facing north east. The circus is about 500 meters in diameter; that is, it is larger than all the circuses included in the central and western groups. The circus rises in three very high walls. The southern half of these walls consists of marble, and the northern half consists of granite, gneiss and hornblende schists. Thus, Aynalı Circus, like all Uludağ circuses, has been included in the granite - marble contact. Karagöl Circus is the second of the circuses in the eastern group. It is almost circular. Uludağ Tepe (2543 m), the highest point of Uludağ, rises just south of the Karagöl Circus. Thus, the height of the steep circus walls turning the lake approaches 300 meters. Karagöl Circus looks north east like neighboring circuses and has a morale wall about 10 meters high. Kilimli Lake Circus, which is the eastern neighbor of Karagöl, constitutes the third of the circuses in the eastern group and also the last of the Uludağ circuses. The floor of this circus, through which the granite-marble contact line passes, is occupied by the relatively smaller and less deep Kilimligöl. The level of this lake is 2330 meters. The excess water of the lake leaks under a 20 meter high morale wall that covers the circus and reappears slightly below. The feet of these three lakes unite in the future and form Aksuyu, which descends to the eastern end of the Bursa Plain.
The fauna of the lakes region
As a result of the zooplankton sampling in the lakes, 11 taxa were determined, including 7 taxa from the Rotifers (Wheel animals) and 3 taxa in 5 families from Copepods (Paddle feet). When we look at the distribution of the Rotifers according to the stations, it is seen that Kilimligöl is the richest station with 36 taxa. This is followed by 13 and 9 taxa, Aynalıgöl, Karagöl and Buzlu Göl. The poorest station in terms of rotifers was Heybeligöl with 8 taxa. A varying number of Oligoket (ringworm) species have been identified at all stations. Although the Naididae (mudworm) family is dominant in species diversity, no Naidid species has been found in Kilimligöl, Karagöl and Aynagöl. As a result, a total of 4 taxa were determined in zooplankton of glacial lakes in Uludağ, 36 in zoobentos and 38 in vertebrate fauna.
Animal community (fauna)
Different animals such as bear, wolf, fox, squirrel, rabbit, weasel, snake, wild boar, lizard, vulture, mountain eagle, woodpecker, owl, dove, mountain bulbul, sparrow continue their lives in Uludağ National Park. The red forest ant also provides great benefit to the Uludağ forests. A deer breeding farm was also established in Yeşiltarla in 1966. The deers on the farm, which has been operating for a very long time, were released into nature in 2006. Bearded Vulture (Grpaetus barbatus) is an endemic species living in Uludağ. 46 species of butterflies live and the Apollo butterfly has an endemic species specific to Uludağ. Boasting the largest of its kind in Turkey, butterfly butterfly, sometimes even the opportunity to live in the 3.000 m high. Their bodies are covered with fur that looks like fur. The dark color of the body helps to absorb heat from the sun. These wings make the butterfly rise extraordinarily.