Yeni Mosque or Valide Sultan Mosque, Sultan III. The foundation was laid by the order of Safiye Sultan, the wife of Murad, and in 1597 the sultan of the time IV. Mehmed's mother is the mosque that was completed with the great efforts and donations of Turhan Hatice Sultan and opened to worship.
Yeni Mosque, which contributes significantly to the silhouette and visuality of the city, is the last example of large mosques built by the Ottoman family in Istanbul. It is known as the mosque, the construction of which can be completed in the longest period in the Ottoman period Turkish architecture. The construction started by the architect Davut Ağa, continued by the Architect Diver Ahmed Ağa, but the construction, which remained unfinished with the death of Safiye Sultan, was founded by the architect Mustafa Aga, 66 years after its inception. It was finished in the time of Mehmed.
The mosque was built at the seaside, but its distance to the sea increased after sea filling.
The architectural style of the mosque is the height emphasis in the dome and the façade porches. He repeats the dome plan used by Mimar Sinan in Şehzade Mosque and Sedefkar Architect Mehmed Ağa in Sultanahmet Mosque. However, the rise of the dome resembling the pyramid is a unique feature.
Along with the Yeni Mosque, the Valide Sultan Mausoleum, the Hünkâr Pavilion, the fountain, fountain, the median school, darülkurra and the Spice Bazaar were built. Later, a library, a temporary quarters and a tomb and fountains were added to the complex.
Today, restoration works are being carried out in mosques and annexes by the General Directorate of Foundations.
Construction of Yeni Mosque and complex, Son III. It was started in 1597 by Safiye Sultan, who wanted to build a mosque in Eminönü to represent his power after Mehmet's throne.
The Bahçekapı district, where the Yeni Mosque is located, was an important commercial place due to its proximity to the customs and the port at the time the mosque was built. In the place of today's mosque there was a church, a synagogue, several shops and many households. Jews brought from the Balkans and Anatolia were placed in the region during the reign of Fatih. The properties of Karay Jews, who have been residents of the region for many years, were taken over by Safiye Sultan in accordance with the expropriation law and their people were sent to Hasköy.
Davut Ağa was the first architect to commission the mosque. Architect Davut Ağa determined the location of the building and drew the plan. After the expropriation was completed, the foundation was laid in April 1598 with a ceremony attended by state leaders. It was reported to Istanbul that the construction of the mosque was started with the gunshots from Tophane. However, the dismissal of Grand Vizier Hadım Hasan Pasha cast a shadow on the celebrations and caused the ceremony not to be completed. On August 20, 1598, the construction was officially started, with a ceremony held for the second time with the weakness of Molla Futûhi Efendi's holy time he had appointed for the foundation of the mosque.
After starting the foundation digging, a lot of water emerged from here, making the construction difficult. The water was evacuated with pumps. To strengthen the ground, the piles, the ends of which are tied with lead belts, were nailed and stone blocks were placed on them. Thus, the walls were raised above ground level. Stones brought from Rhodes were used for this work.
Before the foundation work was completed, after the death of Davut Ağa and his death, architect Dal Dal Ahmed Ahmed Aga, the head of water, was appointed. In 1603, while the building had risen to the first window level, III. The construction was suspended upon the death of Mehmed and the sending of Safiye Sultan to the old palace in Beyazıt, and was completely interrupted by the death of Safiye Sultan in 1604 and the building remained idle for many years.
IV. Murad attempted to continue the mosque construction in 1637; however, he gave up because of the high cost. This mosque, which caused additional taxes due to its excessive expense and eventually remained in ruins, named the Istanbul moral “Zulmiye”.
The abandoned mosque was damaged in the Great Istanbul Fire on July 4, 1660. After the fire, Turhan Hatice Sultan, with the advice of Köprülü Mehmed Pasha, took up the construction of the mosque. When Safiye Sultan's initiative was interrupted, the surrounding of the mosque was once again inhabited by its former owners and became a Jewish settlement. When the fire turned the surrounding Jewish neighborhoods into ashes, 40 Jewish houses were transferred to Hasköy; Thus, the area around the New Mosque was expanded. With the efforts to expand the area, Hünkar Pavilion, Tomb, Sebilhane, Sıbyan School, Darülhadis Spice Bazaar were also added to the project.
Construction started again with the removal of a row of stones under the responsibility of Architect Mustafa Aga, in 1665, the construction ended with a ceremony held in front of the palace where the palace and sentence state officials were present. The mosque, which was called "Zulmiye" by the people, was named "Courthouse". This is the name of the mosque in the registry.
Yeni Mosque continues the scheme with portico with a porch of classical Ottoman architecture. It has a central plan. 16,20 m. The main dome in diameter was extended sideways with half domes in four directions. The main dome carries four elephant legs.
There are two porphyry marble columns under the mosque of Hünkâr, apart from the columns on which the insects (the section surrounded by bars) rest. These columns, whose colors are red, are taken from the Cretan War spoils and placed here.
The building material of the mosque is cut limestone, marble and brick. The mosque is reached through three gates, one of which opens to a portico courtyard in the north, and two of them are on the sides; there is also a small door on the sides in the direction of the mihrab.
The windows providing illumination in the building are arranged in six rows. Wall surfaces from the floor to the top of the second row windows are covered with tiles. In tiles, blue, fiery, green colors are dominant.
To the north of the mosque, there is a courtyard with a portico with a square plan. In the courtyard, there are twenty-four units covered with domes in the pointed arched porticos carried by twenty columns with muqarnas heads. In the middle of the courtyard, there is a fountain with an eight-cornered domed arches.
Its appearance is slightly more regular than the Suleymaniye Mosque, similar in shape to the pointed pyramid.
The mosque has two minarets with three balconies. Minarets rise hexagonally on a square base and are covered with lead-covered cones. They were built on both ends of the large sentence door wall, separating the mosque from the fountain of the fountain.
There are 3 sundials on the courtyard wall in the southwest corner of the mosque.