The Treaty of Lausanne (or the Lausanne Peace Treaty of upgrade via the period of Turkish made), in Lausanne, Switzerland on July 24, 1923, Turkey with the British Empire Grand National Assembly representatives, the French Republic, the Kingdom of Italy, the Japanese Empire, the Kingdom of Greece, Romania and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Peace treaty signed by representatives of the Kingdom of Slovenia (Yugoslavia) at Beau-Rivage Palace on the shores of Lake Leman.
By the summer of 1920, the winners of the First World War ended their reckoning with the defeats, and the process of imposing peace treaties on the countries that lost the war was completed. Germany in Versailles on June 28, 1919, Bulgaria in Neuilly on November 27, 1919, Austria in Saint-Germain on September 10, 1919, and Hungary in Trianon on June 4, 1920. Agreements were signed but the only defeated Ottoman Empire was signed on August 10, 1920 at the Ceramics Museum in Sevres, in the suburbs of Sevres, 3 km west of Paris, France. The reaction of the Turkish Grand National Assembly to the Treaty of Sevres was very harsh in Ankara. With the decision of Ankara Independence Court number 1, he sentenced 3 persons who signed the agreement and Grand Vizier Damat Ferit Pasha to death and declared the traitor. Sevres remained as a draft agreement because no country except Greece approved it in the councils of any country. The Treaty of Sèvres was never implemented, as a result of the fact that the struggle in Anatolia succeeded and ended in victory, although it was not approved. However, in the process leading to the Treaty of Lausanne with the Liberation of Izmir, he sent the fleet, which also had 2 aircraft carriers within the UK, to Istanbul. At the same time the US has sent 13 new warships to the waters of Turkey. In addition, it is known that the USS Scorpion ship under the command of Admiral Bristol was permanently in Istanbul between 1908 and 1923 by acting as an intelligence officer.
The first talks
After the signing of the Mudanya Armistice Treaty after the victory of the TBMM Government against the Greek forces, the Entente States invited the TBMM Government to the peace conference to be held in Lausanne on October 28, 1922. Applicant Rauf Orbay first wanted to join the conference to discuss the conditions of peace. However, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk found it suitable for İsmet Pasha to participate. Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who also participated in Mudanya meetings, found it appropriate to send İsmet Pasha as the chief representative to Lausanne. İsmet Pasha was brought to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the work was accelerated. The Entente States also invited the Istanbul Government to put pressure on the Grand National Assembly of Lausanne. The Turkish Grand National Assembly, which reacted to this situation, abolished the reign on November 1, 1922.
Parliamentary Government of the Lausanne Conference to joining the National Pact to perform, set up the blocking of an Armenian state in Turkey, capitulations removal of problems between Turkey and Greece (Western Thrace, the Aegean islands, population change, war reparations) decoding, Turkey and Europe It decided to discontinue negotiations if an agreement could not be reached on the Armenian homeland and the capitulations that aimed to solve the problems (economic, political, legal) between their states.
In Lausanne, the Turkish Grand National Assembly faced not only the Greeks who attacked Anatolia and defeated the Ottoman Empire, but also the states that defeated the Ottoman State in the First World War, and had to face all the liquidation cases of this empire that is now in history. On November 20, 1922, the Lausanne negotiations started. Long discussions were held on Ottoman debt, Turkish-Greek border, straits, Mosul, minorities and capitulations. However, no agreement was reached on the removal of capitulations, the evacuation of Istanbul and Mosul.
The interruption of the talks on February 4, 1923 brought the possibility of war to the agenda once the parties did not compromise on fundamental issues and there were significant differences of opinion. Commander-in-Chief Mister Mustafa Kemal Pasha ordered the Turkish Army to start preparations for war. if war breaks out again, this time to the Soviet Union entered the war was announced in Turkey. Haim Nahum Effendi minority representatives in leadership have become mediators have supported Turkey. and can not afford a new war in the reaction of their public Allies Lausanne urged Turkey again to restart peace talks.
Discussions with mutual concessions between the parties started on April 23, 1923, negotiations that started on April 23 continued until July 24, 1923 and this process ended with the signing of the Lausanne Peace Treaty. the agreement signed between the representatives of the signatory countries, were discussed in parliament as required by law Parties which require the approval by the parliaments of countries in international treaties and Turkey by August 23, 1923, by Greece 25 August 1923, Italy 12 by March 1924, by Japan, May 15, 1924 ' Signed in. The United Kingdom approved the agreement on July 16, 1924. The agreement entered into force on August 6, 1924, after the documents that all parties approved were officially forwarded to Paris.
Issues Discussed and Decisions Taken in the Lausanne Peace Treaty
- Turkey-Syria Border: The borders drawn in the Ankara Agreement signed with the French were accepted.
- Iraqi Border: Mosul on the treaty can not be provided for, in this regard the Government of the United Kingdom and Turkey would negotiate its own agreement among them. This conflict has turned into the Mosul Problem.
- Turkish-Greek Border: It was accepted as defined in the Mudanya Armistice Treaty. Meric River in the west of Elm station and Bosnaköy Greece's war reparations to the destruction of the Western response was given to Turkey in Anatolia.
- Islands: Regarding Greek rule over Lesbos, Limnos, Chios, Samothrace, Samos and Ahikerya islands, the provisions of the 1913 Treaty of London and the Athens Treaty of 1913 on the islands and the decree notified to Greece on 13 February 1914, It has been accepted on the condition that it is not used for purposes Turkish sovereignty over the islands located less than 3 miles from the Anatolian coast and over Bozcaada, Gökçeada and the Rabbit Islands.
All rights on the Twelve Islands, which were temporarily left to Italy in 1912 by the Ottoman Empire with the Ushi Treaty, were waived in favor of Italy with the fifteenth article.
- Turkey-Iran Border: It was determined according to the Kasr-ı Şirin Treaty signed between the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid State on May 17, 1639.
- capitulations: All removed.
- minorities: In the Lausanne Peace Treaty, the minority was determined as non-Muslims. All minorities were accepted as Turkish nationals and it was stated that they would not be given any privileges. The following provision is included in the 40th article of the treaty: “Turkish nationals belonging to non-Muslim minorities will benefit from the same procedures and guarantees as other Turkish nationals both in terms of law and in practice. In particular, they will have an equal right to establish, manage and supervise all kinds of charitable institutions, religious and social institutions, all kinds of schools and similar education and training institutions, and to freely use their own language and to practice their religious services freely, to pay their own expenses. It was decided to exchange the Turks in Western Thrace, the Greeks in Anatolia and Eastern Thrace, and the Turks in Greece, apart from the Greeks in Istanbul.
- War compensation: The Entente States gave up their war claims for the First World War. Turkey, please 4 million gold price demanded from Greece as however, this request was not accepted. 59. It was agreed upon that the matter of war crimes committed in Greece and Turkey was waived and only pay war reparations as Greece, gave the region Elm.
- Ottoman debts: Ottoman debts were shared among the states that left the Ottoman Empire. The chapter falls to Turkey was ordered to pay by installments as the French franc. Representatives of the defeated German Empire and the states of the Austro-Hungarian Empire were removed from the administrative board and the activities of the institution continued and new duties were given with the treaty. (Lausanne Peace Treaty articles 45,46,47… 55, 56).
- The straits: Straits are the most discussed topic throughout the talks. Finally a temporary solution has been provided. Accordingly, non-military ships and planes could pass through the straits in peacetime. In order to demilitarize both sides of the Straits and to ensure the passage, an international council with a Turkish president was formed and it was decided that these regulations would be maintained under the guarantee of the League of Nations. Thus, Turkish soldiers were banned from entering the Straits. This provision was replaced by the Montreux Straits Convention signed in 1936.
- Foreign schools: It was agreed to continue their education in accordance with the law will put Turkey.
- Patriarchs: The patriarchate, which was the religious leader of the world Orthodox, was allowed to stay in Istanbul on the condition that all privileges during the Ottoman Empire were abolished and only on the condition of fulfilling religious affairs and on the basis of the promises made in this regard. However, there is not a single provision regarding the status of the patriarchate in the text of the treaty.
- CyprusThe Ottoman Empire temporarily gave Cyprus to the UK administration in 1878, on the condition that their rights in Cyprus were reserved, in order to attract the British against the Russians. The United Kingdom officially announced the annexation of Cyprus on November 5, 1914, following the outbreak of the First World War. The Ottoman State did not recognize this decision. Turkey has accepted the Treaty of Lausanne with Article 20 of the United Kingdom sovereignty of Cyprus.