Topkapı Palace is the palace used by the Ottoman sultans in Sarayburnu, Istanbul, for 600 years of the 400-year history of the Ottoman Empire. Some 4.000 people lived in a time.
The Topkapı Palace was built by Fatih Sultan Mehmed in 1478, and it became the administrative center of the state and the official residence of the Ottoman sultans for about 380 years until Abdulmecid built the Dolmabahçe Palace. The palace, which was located on an area of approximately 700.000 m² during its establishment, has an area of 80.000 m² today.
Topkapı Palace was evacuated after the people of the palace started living in Dolmabahçe Palace, Yıldız Palace and other palaces. After being abandoned by the Sultans, Topkapı Palace, where many officials lived, never lost its importance. The palace was repaired from time to time. In the month of Ramadan, a special attention was paid to the maintenance of the Cardigan Saadet, where Sacred Relics were visited by the sultan and his family.
Fatih Sultan Mehmed started the construction of Topkapı Palace in 1465
The opening of Topkapı Palace to visitors like a museum for the first time coincided with the reign of Abdülmecid. The items in the Topkapı Palace Treasury were shown to the British ambassador of that time. After that, it is a tradition to show the ancient works in the Topkapı Palace Treasure to foreigners, and in the time of Abdülaziz, glass windows with empirical style are built, and the ancient works in the treasury are started to be shown to foreigners within these showcases. II. Although Abdülhamid was thrown from the throne, it was thought that the Topkapı Palace Hazine-i Hümâyûn was opened to the public visit on Sunday and Tuesday.
Topkapı Palace, which was affiliated with the Istanbul İstanbulsâr-ı Atika Museums Directorate on April 3, 1924 upon the order of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, started to serve under the name of Treasury Kethüdalığı and then the Treasury Directorate. Today, it continues to serve under the name of Topkapı Palace Museum Directorate.
Topkapı Palace was opened to visitors as a museum on October 1924, 9 after some minor repairs were made in 1924 and administrative measures were taken for visitors to visit. The sections opened to visit at that time are Kubbealtı, Supply Room, Mecidiye Mansion, Hekimbaşı Room, Mustafa Paşa Mansion and Bağdat Mansion.
The palace, which attracts large tourist masses today, has been included in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1985 and is one of the first historical monuments in the historical peninsula of Istanbul. Today it serves as a museum.
Sections of Topkapi Palace
Aerial view of Topkapı Palace, Hagia Irene, Hagia Sophia and Sultan Ahmet Mosque are also seen in the background (October 2014) Topkapı Palace was established on the Byzantine acropolis in Sarayburnu at the end of the historical Istanbul peninsula between the Marmara Sea, the Bosphorus and the Golden Horn. The palace was separated from the city by the land by Sûr-ı Sultâni, built by Fatih Sultan Mehmed, and by the Byzantine walls by the sea. Apart from the doors opening to various places in the palace with various land gates and sea gates, the monumental entrance of the palace is the Bâb-ı Hümâyûn (Sultanate Gate) behind Hagia Sophia. Topkapı Palace is divided into two main sections in accordance with the structure created due to the administration, education place and the residence of the sultan. These are Birun, which consists of service structures in the first and second courtyards, and Enderûn, which consists of structures related to internal organization.
Saray-ı Hümayun and Inner Palace
The structures of Saray-ı Hümayun surrounded by city walls: Bab-ı Hümayun (Sultanate Gate), Hasbahçe (Gülhane Park), Istabl-ı Âmire (Has Ahırlar), Soğukçeşme Gate, Otluk Gate, Wood Gate, Fishhouse Gate, Vükela Gate, Yalıköşkü Gate, Alay Pavilion, Basketmakers Pavilion, Waterside Mansion, Pearly Pavilion, Şevkiye Pavilion, Old Boathouses, Yeni Mint House, Mint Mansion, Gülhane Pavilion, Gothic Column, Tiled Mansion, Revan Mansion, Baghdad Mansion, III. Osman Mansion, Sofa Mansion.
Structures in the inner palace: Bâbüsselâm (Salute Gate), Kitchen wing, Babüssaade (Saadet Gate), Supply Room, Fatih Mansion, Hekimbaşı room, Ağalar Mosque, Inner treasure, Treasure of Treasure, Has Ahır, Kubbealtı, III. Ahmet Library, Circumcision Chamber, III. Murat Mansion
Bab-ı Hümayun (Sultanate Gate)
The palace area in Sur-i Sultani, which separates the palace from the city and was built by Fatih Sultan Mehmed with the construction of the palace, is entered from the Bâb-ı Hümâyûn.
Model of Topkapi Palace
At the top of the door, in a muslim (mutual) style, written by Ali bin Yahya Sofi, with a celi sulus calligraphy and 45-48 of Surah Hijrah. verses are written. In his simplified form in the first inscription above the door, he writes: “This blessed castle was built with the consent and grace of God. Sultan Mehmed Han, the son of Sultan Mehmed Han, the son of Sultan Mehmed Han, the sultan of the land, the right of the seas, the shadow of God in the two realms, the help of God in the East and the West, the hero of water and land, the father of the conquest of Constantinople and the conquests of the world. 'Allah Almighty make his reign eternal and raise his maqam over the brightest star of the angel, by the order of Abu Feth Mehmed Mehmed Khan, it was reconstructed and built in the holy month of Ramadan (November-December 883). statement takes place.
II, under the inscription and on the inside of the door. It is understood from the tugras of Mahmud and Abdülaziz that the door was repaired several times.
There are small rooms reserved for caretakers on both sides of Bab-ı Hümayun. There was a small mansion in the shape of a mansion that Fatih Sultan Mehmed had built for him because he burned in 1866 on the door. The main importance of the upper floor is that it was used as Beytül property (Door between the treasures). This space, which is connected with the sultan's treasure system, which is the system of the sultan's deceased servants or the wealth of the deceased persons, was used as the place where the commodity that was not taken into the sultan treasury was entrusted to seven years.
Courtyard I (Alay Square)
This asymmetric courtyard, which is entered from Bab-ı Hümayun, is located in the second level of the palace-city-state tripartite management system, which is a center where the public can enter on certain days and maintain its relations with the state. It is the only area where the state man can enter with a horse.
The 300-meter-long tree road connecting Bab-ı Hümayun to Bab-üs Selam witnessed the sultans passing by the Gülus, Expedition, and Friday Greetings.This courtyard was also the scene of the Ambassador regiments, the cypriot regiments, and the Valide regiments in the Sultan's palace.
Service structures in Alay Square
On the left side there was a wood warehouse and wickerwork furnaces that met the needs of the palace. These parts, which form a whole with their baths, wards, workshops, stables, have not survived to the present day. The building on the left side of the courtyard, which today serves as Karakol Restaurant, was used as the outer station of Topkapı Palace during the Ottoman period.
Hagia Irene Church, which has been used as a pockethouse since the time of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror, is one of the rare buildings that have survived to the present day. These structures, which started from the side of the Cebehane and stretched along the road that gave way to the gardens of the palace and the Tiled Pavilion, have completely changed today.
17.786 square meters of the mint has survived to the present day, the Mint General Directorate Stamp Printing Department, the Relief and Monuments Directorate and the Restoration and Conservation Central Laboratory Directorate use some of these structures. Koz came after the gate keepers Istanbul Archaeological Museums across the lessor remaining structures from the Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism History Foundation uses.
Structures Not Found in the First Courtyard Today, at the end of the mint buildings, it is known that an establishment called Girl watchers or Koz watchers was located. The gate on the road where the Koz Bekçiler Furnace, whose duties are to protect the warehouses and harem from the outside, is also called the Koz Bekçiler Gate.
From the entrance of Bâb-ı Hümâyûn, there was the Enderûn Hospital, on the right side, the road descending to the buildings and gardens on the Marmara Sea side of the palace, and the gate called Dizme or Dizma Kapısı, Hasırın and Cabinet Cabinet.
As we approached the entrance of the gate, II. The 16th century Executioner Fountain, which was carried by Abdulhamid to the wall on this side of the square, is seen. On the left side of the road, there was a small octagonal mansion-like structure on the part of the courtyard close to Bab-üs Selam. The structure, which has a pointed roof in the form of a cone, is also known as the Paper Emi Tower or the Deavi Pavilion. Every day, one of the viziers of Kubbealtı came here to collect the petitions given by the people, listen to the applicants and present the matter to Dîvân-ı Hümâyun.
Today, there is a tea garden belonging to DÖSİM where food and beverage service is served to the visitors who enter and leave the palace at the location of this place.
Bâbüsselâm (Selam Gate / Middle Gate)
Bâbüsselâm (Gate of Salam) was built by Fatih Sultan Mehmed in 1468. After the repairs made during the statutory period, the gate reflecting the classic elements of the 16th century Ottoman architecture with its wide arched portal vault, side niches and its two towers is similar to the European castle doors. The iron gate was built in 1524 by Isa bin Mehmed. Word-i Tawheed, Sultan II. Mahmud's monogram, the repair inscriptions dated 1758 and Sultan III. They have Mustafa tugras.
II. Courtyard (Divan Square)
The courtyard was presumably built in 1465 during the reign of Fatih Sultan Mehmet. There are palace hospital, patisserie, Janissary barracks, Istabl-ı Âmire stables, Harem around. It has a sofa in the north and palace kitchens in the south. In archaeological studies, Byzantine and Roman ruins were found in the palace. These finds are exhibited in the second courtyard in front of the palace kitchens. There is a cistern from the Byzantine period under the palace. While in use during the Ottoman period, there were a large number of rabbit birds and gazelles in the courtyard. Istabl-Âmire (Has Ahırlar) was built by Fatih Sultan Mehmet and renovated during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. A vast treasure called the Treasure of Raht is kept in a private barn. Beşir Ağa Mosque and Bath, built in the name of Harem Ağa Beşir Aga, are also located here.
Palace Kitchens and Porcelain Collection
The kitchens are located on an inner street between the courtyard and the Marmara Sea. The palace kitchens, inspired by the kitchens of Edirne Palace, were built in the 15th century. Kitchens damaged after the fire of 1574 were redesigned by Mimar Sinan.
They are the biggest cuisines of the Ottoman Empire. Kitchen workers, up to 800 in number, were responsible for providing food to about 4.000 people. Kitchens included a mosque for dormitories, baths and employees, but most of them disappeared over time.
Kubbealtı was hosting the Dîvân-ı Hümâyûn (Sultan's Court). In the period after Fatih Sultan Mehmed, the grand vizier (or vizier-i zzam) was the head of this divan.
Treasury-ı Amire (Dîvân-ı Hümâyûn Treasure)
III. Since there is another “inner” treasure in the courtyard, the Dîvân-ı Hümâyûn Treasure is called an external treasure. Although it is not clear when it is made, it is estimated that it was built in the late 15th century during the period of the Law.
In the treasury, the financial management of the empire was made. Valuable caftans, jewelery and other gifts that financial managers would give to viziers, ambassadors, and court dwellers were kept here. The salaries that the janissaries received quarterly, were called here. 4 years after Topkapı Palace was turned into a museum (1928), the weapons and armor collection of Topkapı Palace are exhibited in this building.
In the archaeological work carried out in 1937, a 5th-century basilica is located in front of the building. This basilica is known as the "Palace Basilica" because it cannot be matched with other churches that were unearthed.