Steam locomotives are steam powered locomotives. Steam locomotives were used from the mid-19th century to the mid-20th century.
The locomotives started to be pulled by horses in the wagon, which started to be used in Germany in the middle of 1500s. With the invention of the steam machine in the early 1700s, these roads began to be turned into railways, and the first steam locomotive was manufactured in 1804 by Richard Trevithick and Andrew Vivian in England. The locomotive worked in Wales on the "Penydarren" (Merthyr Tydfil) tram line, which is close to the rail size. In the following period, the twin cylinder locomotive by Matthew Murray was built in 1812 for the operator of Vagonyolu Middleton Railway.
These developments in the UK speeded up the start of the US and Tom Thumb, the first American steam locomotive to work on the Baltimore-Ohio Railway in 1829, started working on this line. Best Friend of Charleston was the first successful railway locomotive.
Development of Steam Locomotive
In the 25 years following the construction of the Trevithick locomotive, a limited number of steam locomotives were successfully used on coal-bearing railways. Towards the end of the Napoleonic wars, this rise in feed prices also had a significant impact. Since the Ievha roads made in cast iron were not strong enough to support the weight of the steam locomotive, these roads with an "L" section where the wheels of the wagon fit were replaced by flat-surface rails and flanged wheels.
Steam Locomotive Cylinder
George Stephenson, taking advantage of the experience of his previous designers in 1814, made the flat surface locomotives moving on rails. In almost all of the previous locomotives, the cylinders were placed vertically and were partially immersed in the boiler. In 1815, Stephenson and Losh patented the idea of transmitting the main drive wheels directly from the cylinders via the top-front cranks instead of transmitting the drive power from the piston to the main drive wheel. The device, which transmits the drive power with gear wheels, caused a jerky movement, especially when wear appeared on large teeth. The mechanism, which transmits power directly from the cylinder, gave the designers a greater degree of freedom because it is leaner.
Steam Locomotive Boilers
The locomotive boilers have also turned into a tubular form when it was in the form of a lean tubing, and then into a tubular form where many pipes coexisted, thereby providing a wider heating surface. In this last form, a series of pipes were attached to a similar plate, which was found on the side where the stove burned. Exhaust vapor from the cylinders causes an explosion as it passes through the pipes and goes from the end of the smoke to the chimney, keeping the fire alive while the locomotive is moving. While a locomotive stood where it was, a knot was used. Henry Booth, an accountant for the Liverpool and Manchester Company, patented in 1827 a more sophisticated multi-pipe accident. Stephenson also used the present invention on his locomotive called Rocket (but first he had to make very long trials to prevent the connection rings on the end plates to which the copper pipes were connected, not to leak).
After 1830 the steam locomotive took the form it is known today. The cylinders were placed either horizontally or slightly inclined at the end where the smoke came out, and if the fireman's place was, it was located at the end where the stove burned.
Steam Locomotive Chassis
With the rollers and axles coming out of being connected to the boiler or placing them right under the boiler, a frame was needed to hold the various parts together. The rod frame, used for the first time on British locomotives, was soon implemented in the USA, and switched from wrought iron to cast steel. The rollers were mounted outside the frame. In England, the bar frame was replaced by a plate frame. In this, the cylinders are located inside the frame, and there are spring suspensions (helical or leaf-shaped) for the frames, and the axle bearings (oiled bearings) to hold the axles.
With the introduction of steel in boiler making after 1860, it was possible to work at higher pressures. Towards the end of the 19th century, 12 bar pressure became widespread in locomotives; If the compound is locomotives, 3,8 bar pressure was started to be used. This pressure increased to 17,2 bar in this era. In 1890, the cylinders of the express locomotives were made with a diameter of 51 cm and a stroke of 66cm. Later in countries like the USA, the cylinder diameter increased to 81 cm and both locomotives and wagons began to be made larger.
In the first locomotives, there were pumps powered by axle. However, these only worked while the engine was running. The injector was found in 1859. Steam (or later exhaust vapor) from the boiler was spraying through the cone-shaped coarse nozzle (diffuser), filling the water into the boiler at a higher pressure. A "check valve" (one-way valve) kept the steam inside the boiler. The dry steam was either taken from the top of the boiler and collected in a perforated pipe or from a point at the top of the boiler and collected in the steam droplet. This dry steam was then transferred to a regulator and the regulator controlled the distribution of the dry steam. The most important development in steam locomotives was the introduction of overheating.
The sloped pipe, which carried steam through a gas pipe to the furnace first and then to a collector at the front end of the boiler, was found by Wilhelm Schmidt and was also used by other engineers. Savings in fuel, especially in water, immediately showed itself. For example, 'saturated' steam was produced at 12 bar pressure and 188 ° C temperature; this steam was rapidly expanding in the cylinders, heating an additional 93 ° C. Thus, in the 20th century, locomotives became capable of operating at high speeds, even in short cutting times of 15%. Advances such as steel wheels, fiberglass boiler linings, long pitch piston valves, direct steam passages and overheating have contributed to the final stage of steam locomotive application.
Steam from the boiler was also used for other purposes. In order to increase traction, instead of pouring, “sandblasting” was started to be used with steam, which increased friction force in 1887. The main brakes were operated with a vacuum from the machine or with compressed air from a steam pump. In addition, steam heating carried to the wagons by pipes was provided and electric light was obtained from the steam dynamo (generator).