In the third and final part of your article series, I tried to explain the historical process of 109 T-70 Black Hawk helicopters, which are still under development and testing, without going into very technical details. For the first part of the article here for the second part here You can click.
As you will see after reading, the period between the beginning of the project and the point reached today is about 15 years, and if the deliveries continue as planned, the project will be completed in 2026. Although constantly changing demands during the project period lead to the extension of the project, we can think positively as it has provided gains in terms of technology and experience in the longer term. Pleasant readings.
In accordance with the SSIK decision dated 19 January 2005 under the name of “TSK Helicopter Project”, the supply of 32 General Purpose and Combat Search / Rescue Helicopters required by Land, Air and Naval Forces, by providing maximum domestic contributions, through international tender. to be realized. At the beginning of the project, which will evolve over the past few years, the amount of need is 20 combat helicopters for the Land Forces Command (KKKlığı) and 6 mid-range general purpose helicopters for the Naval Forces Command (Naval Forces Command) and 6 for the Air Force Command (Air Force Command). It was designated as a rescue (CSAR) helicopter.
However, the number of platforms to be procured has reached 22.06.2005 as a result of the inclusion of the fire extinguisher helicopter requirement of the General Directorate of Forestry with the SSIK decision dated 52.
The Defense Industry Directorate (SSB) published an Information Request Document (RFI / RFL) on the project on 15.02.2005 and the responses were received on 04.04.2005. The Call for Proposals Document (TÇD), which was prepared in the light of the information obtained, was published on 04.07.2005 and asked the relevant companies to send their offers to them until 05.12.2005. However, the submission deadline of the proposals was extended to 15 March first, then to 15 June and finally to 15.09.2006. The number of helicopters reached 2 with the inclusion of 54 helicopters needed by the General Staff Electronic Systems (GES) Command.
International companies applying to SSB to receive TÇD are as follows;
- AgustaWesdand (AB149)
- Eurocopter (EC725 and NH90)
- Kamov (Ka-62)
- NH Industries (NH90, Eurocopter and Agusta)
- RosoboronExport (Mi-17)
- Sikorsky (S-70)
- Ulan-Ude (Mi-8) and
- Erickson Air-Crane (S-54E fire fighting helicopter shaped on Sikorky CH-64A helicopter)
Among the desired in the helicopter to be supplied;
- Avionics System Integration work is carried out by the domestic industry, the structural parts and equipment to be determined are produced by the domestic industry, and the use of original avionic devices (MFD, radio, INS / GPS, FLIR, IFF etc.) and EH system produced with national facilities in helicopters to be supplied.
- In addition to the flight crew consisting of 2 pilots and 1 technician, the general purpose helicopter of KKK should be able to carry a total of 18 soldiers.
- DzKK's general purpose helicopter should be able to carry flight crew and diver in the role of AK, and flight crew and doctor in the role of medical support.
- In addition to the flight crew, HvKK's MAK helicopter MAK can carry 2 or 7, and in the role of SAR, 2 divers and 1 doctor.
- OGM's firefighting helicopter should be able to carry 15 personnel in addition to its flight crew, it should have a bucket system with a capacity of 5.000lb for fire-fighting purposes and can be controlled manually or automatically by the pilot, and 4 of the OGM helicopters should have comfortable seat design in accordance with VIP duties. .
- The seats of the flight crew should be crash resistant and helicopters should have a wheel landing system.
- Fuel tanks of KKK, DzKK and HvKK helicopters should be able to repair themselves up to 12.7mm ammunition.
- 3 of the HvKK platforms and all DzKK platforms must have an emergency water landing system kit, while KKK helicopters must have preparations for the integration of the emergency water landing system dirt.
- The helicopters must have two ASELSAN product LN-1OOG INS / GPS systems, 2 CDU-000 devices and MFD-268 MFDs. KKK helicopters should have at least 4 MFDs.
- Helicopters should have a STM product digital map system and HvKK helicopters' digital maps should be able to show other HvKK helicopters participating in the flight.
- HvKK and DzKK helicopters must be equipped with AselFLIR (laser range finder, IR camera, day camera and digital video recording capable) device. KKK helicopters should have the necessary preparations for AselFLIR integration.
- HvKK and DzKK helicopters must be equipped with 2 window-mounted 7.62mm guns (M-60 for DzKK and M-6 minigun with 134 barrels for HvKK), and HvKK helicopters must have preliminary preparations for the 20mm GIAT CN MIT 20 M621 gun in the inventory.
- HvKK helicopters must have Link 16 system and UHF SATCOM for data transfer and be able to refuel in the air.
In addition, KKK, DzKK and HvKK helicopters will be equipped with a unique EH self-defense system consisting of Aselsan / Mikes product AAR-60 MWS, Özışık CMDS, RWR, RFJ, SCPU and LWR subsystems under the HEWS Project.
In the project where a single helicopter type will be supplied for the need, on 15.09.2006;
- Agusta Westland (AW149 and NH90),
- Eurocopter (EC725 and NH90),
- NH Industries (NH90)
- Quotes were received from Sikorsky (S-70 BlackHawk International).
2007 of the helicopters planned to be supplied in 54; A total of 20 items, including 6 NCCs, 6 HVKKs, 20 DZKKs, 2 OGMs, 30 General Staff GES Commands, 6 JGnKs and 90 ÖzKKs, came to the agenda and the cancellation of the tender has started to be evaluated.
In the initial evaluations, the BlackHawk International helicopter proposed by Sikorsky company was shaped not on the new model UH-60M, but on the UH-60L, and is still far behind the UH-60M helicopter, which is still being delivered to the U.S. Land Forces in terms of technology and performance. It was found to be a more suitable offer than UH-60M in terms of both unit cost and domestic contribution options. Sikorsky's most serious competitor in the assessment is the AW149 helicopter from Agusta Westland. However, the chance of the AW-4 helicopter was low due to the fact that the user did not favor the entry of a type 149 platform into the inventory and that there was no fly platform in the middle.
With the SSIK decision dated 05.12.2007, the General Purpose Helicopter Project (TSK 52 + 2) was canceled and the need defined for JGnK with Sikorsky and Agusta Westland companies within the framework of a production model based on SSB's long-term cooperation (69 Commands and It was decided to start negotiations for the supply of a total of 15 helicopters (84 for JGnK) (option for +15 helicopters JGnK).
As of the end of 2008, the project where Sikorsky and AW competed has been changed again. The 6 general purpose helicopters defined for DzKK are evaluated separately from other helicopters, as they will cause a differentiation in the production line by having a marine-compatible structure (marinised). Therefore, while the need was expressed as 78 + 6, the total need increased to 20 by adding the number of helicopters to be supplied to the package of 11 units of the General Directorate of Security and 115 of the Coast Guard Command to this package. If the SSI platforms were also evaluated as sea-compatible, the figure would be 98 + (6 + 11) in terms of manufacturing.
When we arrived in 2009, the number of helicopters in the project started with the SSIK decision dated 19.01.2005; KKK 20, HvKK 6, DzKK 6, SGK 6, OGM 20, GES 2, JGnK 30, EGM 20 and ÖzKK 11 have increased to a total of 121 [109 + 12] helicopters of the Maritime and Coast Guard Commands compatible with marine conditions [marinated] Since the body structure of these helicopters will be supplied from abroad, negotiations were made with the companies in the January-February 2009 period. In the interviews, SSB increased its helicopter needs to 98, including 109 + 12 (ready purchase) +98, with a new option of 219, to strengthen its hand and to get more domestic contributions and work shares for the Turkish Defense Industry.
Sikorsky Aircraft's T-70 (S-70i) helicopter would be powered by T700-GE-701D (-) engines, since the U.S. did not favor the transfer of FADEC technology. Having 701D body and controls of 701C engine, this engine would have 701% less power compared to 5D engine, but it would have a longer lifetime.
The T13.11.2009 helicopter proposed by AW, which made its first flight on 149, would be developed on the basis of AW149. The helicopters would be equipped with 2.000 GE engine CT2-7E2 engines, each with a power of 1shp.
Domestic production and assembly of these engines, both of which are GE products, would be carried out at TEI plants. As a result of the negotiations, TEI engines had the right to manufacture with over 50% domestic additives and to make their complete overholstery. TEI will be able to perform parts production, assembly, testing and maintenance and repair activities for these engines not only for domestic needs, but also for third countries.
The final decision was made on 19.01.2005 after three postponements in the Turkish General Purpose Helicopter (TGMH) Project, which was launched with the decision of the Defense Industry Executive Committee dated 32 and reached a total of 109 helicopters, from 12 to 98 + 219 + 21.04.2011. in SSIK meeting, the total cost of logistics items and store-level investments, including a 10-year project period fixed price of 3.5 billion in projects in USD order (first received bids were over 4,5 billion USD) TAI, the US built Sikorsky Aircraft company together with Turkey ' It was announced that the design will be completed with special developments and 10 helicopters in 18 tons class, capable of carrying 109 soldiers, equipped with modern equipment. It also deals in Turkey, as the number of helicopters Sikorsky Aircraft's TGMH will order up to 300 helicopters under the Project is situated to take 3rd committed to the production line in Turkey to sell to the country.
The project, which started in 2005, continued for the contract signature on the decision announced in 2011, and ended after approximately 3 years and within the scope of the Turkish General Purpose Helicopter Program (TGMHP) tender; The first of the 2019 T-109 helicopters, which are expected to be delivered in 70, will be produced and delivered at TAI facilities, the goods and services (spare parts, ground support equipment, technical documentation, services) and Warehouse Level Maintenance (DSB) capability (DSB reserves, DSB ground support equipment and DSB technical documentation) was signed on 21.02.2014.
According to Sikorsky data, T-700, which will use the T7001-TEI-70D engine, will have an operational radius of 1.820m with 3 fully equipped troops at an air temperature of 15o ° C, and will be able to stay in the air for 200 hours in a mission zone of 100km radius if necessary.
In MAK / AK mission, the T-70 can perform the task of rescuing 35 civilian casualties or 370 military pilot in an area of 4km radius thanks to dual internal additional fuel tanks at sea level at 1 ° C. In the role of MAK, Helicopter Nexter will be able to be armed with two 20mm diameter guns and two 7.62-diameter six-barreled M134 Miniguns.
Within the scope of the project, all US export licenses between TUSAŞ and domestic subcontractor companies of Sikorsky company have been completed, and the contract, planned to be delivered between 28 and 07.06.2016, with an estimated 67% locality rate on 2021, has come into force after 2026 months after the signing of the contract.
The first T-70 helicopter manufactured by TUSAŞ operated the rotor for the first time in 2020. Delivery of helicopters is planned to start in 2021.
Source: a. Emre SİFOĞLU /savunmasanayist