Kars-Tbilisi-Baku railway opening: Atatürk University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences Faculty Member. Dr. Kerem Khan, the Kars-Tbilisi-Baku railroad article published on regional importance, railway Turkey, Azerbaijan, Georgia, evaluated the importance of the European and Chinese connection with Armenia.
Atatürk University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences Faculty Member Prof. Dr. Kerem Khan, in the context of Turkey-Azerbaijan relations, "as it is known, Azerbaijan and Turkey in 1991 after the disintegration of the USSR have been the founder of two states in relations with the following words. Mehmet Emin Resulzade; 'The Republic of Azerbaijan is the first Republic to be formed in the realm of Islam. This is also a Republican Turkish Republic 'al refers to the small and Turkey' he says, and adds: 'Small people of Turkey Turkey with a huge mark up relations between the two brother peoples Sami valve. Azerbaijan also is part of the issue is a matter of vital importance for Turkey, the Caucasus' (boxwood; 2011: 22-23). Heydar Aliyev; 'We Are Two States One Nation'. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk; Azerbaijan's sorrow is our sorrow, its joy is our joy. However, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk; What he said during the opening of the Azerbaijan Embassy on November 18, 1921; "Azerbaijan is a point of contact and progress for sister governments and nations in Asia." they said. It is possible to see the Kars-Tbilisi-Baku railway as the transformation of these perspectives into real. The other country where the project takes place is Georgia. Georgia after the collapse of the USSR was seen as a vital country for Turkey itself. Therefore, in both oil and natural gas projects in the railway project he has always acted with Turkey and Azerbaijan. This attitude is Georgia's own interest as well as the interests of Turkey and Azerbaijan. " He gave place to his statements.
Regarding the importance of the project, Prof. Dr. Kerem Karabulut said, “The cultural, social and historical proximity of these three countries also increases the importance of developing such projects. Turkey and Azerbaijan 'one nation, two states' act always with the motto. On the other hand, have a large number of Turkish citizens of Georgian origin in Turkey and that of 1 million people of Turkish origin in Georgia Georgian citizens in this country are considered as an important cause of social closer together. Armenia, which is located in a geography in the middle of these three countries, is excluded from the positive developments in the region due to the wrong policies implemented by the diaspora. This project, which is of great importance in terms of the countries of the region and living ethnic origins, will be implemented approximately 2-3 months later. In order to reveal the meaning and importance of the project with its first opening, it will be meaningful that the following sentence is the opening slogan. 'Let's Live Together The Privilege of Being One of the First Passengers of the Kars-Tbilisi-Baku Train'. We can express the meaning and importance of the project in terms of the world with a single sentence as' the construction of the Iron Silk Road connecting Europe to China. Apart from China, it is a very important project as it connects Central Asian countries to Europe. With this study, it is tried to both introduce the Kars-Tbilisi-Baku Railway Project and to focus on what kind of gains can be made due to this project ”.
THE REASONS FOR FOREIGNERS TO BUILD THE RAILWAYS IN THE OTTOMAN
Atatürk University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Professor, addressing different issues related to the construction of the railway by foreigners during the Ottoman period. Dr. Kerem Karabulut gave the following statements: “Until the foundation of the Republic, the railways were built and operated under the control of the westerners. Until the year 1914, 74,3 million pounds sterling (81,7 million pounds) was invested in the Ottoman Empire. 61,3 million pounds of this investment was collected in railway construction, banking and trade activities. Thus, the interests of foreigners are in the service sector. Because the developments in this sector facilitate the activities of foreigners. Until 1914, 6107 km railway was built on the Ottoman territory. 4037 km of this was built and operated by foreigners. Foreign capitalists have the privilege of trading on the railway route they have built, the application of the method called "mileage guarantee" in railway construction. The Ottoman state contributed to the capital by borrowing the railways, as well as paying a guarantee per km to foreign companies. Thus it guarantees the profit-making absolute of the Ottoman Empire, railway construction and operation of underground and aboveground richness of the controls to get the work, work the building of influence, that gets railway from the Ottomans to the Republic of Turkey is 4100 km. The Governments of the Republic purchased and nationalized these railways, the status of the lines taken over from the Ottoman Empire at the establishment of the republic is as follows: Normal width lines of the companies and 2.282 km narrow line, 70 km long normal width line under the administration of the state, average between 1.378 and 1923 1940 km of railway has been built every year. The length of the lines built until 1950 is 3.578 km. 3.208 km of this was completed by 1940. The cheapest way to transport is by sea. However, as it is known in Turkey for various reasons it can not be used effectively in the sea. For railways, the 1923-1940 period is the breakthrough period and the 1940-1950 period is the recession period. After 1950, it is the highway weighted period. After 1986, it is understood that highways are prioritized in terms of transportation. The second channel is most convenient transportation in railway, which could not be used in domestic transportation in Turkey. Approximately 3% of passenger transport and 6% of freight transport are carried out by rail. The shares of the highway are around% 95 and% 89, respectively. Seaway's place in freight transport is around 3%. It is most rational to use the road for distances up to 200 km, and the railroad for those far from this distance. Therefore, Kars-Tbilisi-Baku Railway can be considered as a very rational project. Falih Rifki Atay railway began attacking the republic "was being agents will knead the success of the new era of railroading, Turkey Turkey. Railroaders could not only lay rail, did not open a tunnel, did not build bridges, opened side-side factories, took care of irrigation works, this country to our century, the messenger and heralded the technical and faith staff. 15 was a dream today years ago. 15 years before today is a nightmare ”. Again Falih Rıfkı Atay; "We did not know, there was no teacher who knew, when it is mentioned that the state will build the railways, the state cannot build railways from all sides, the words have no place in the book" expresses the perceptions of the post-Republic railways. This understanding also reveals how Western countries have a policy of establishing sovereignty in the Ottoman country. Turkey has put into practice in recent years, high-speed train project and is correct at the time of the rail link between Europe and Asia to what extent it is possible to tell by looking at this summary information.
-Tiflis- Baku Kars railway line providing information about Khan, "Iron Silk Road" called the line, passing through Georgia from Azerbaijan's capital of Baku, Tbilisi and Kars city of Turkey reaches Ahilkelek city. This railway line Azerbaijan and Turkey aims to join. The entire railroad is 826 km and it is a project with a total cost of 450 million dollars. 76 km of railway from Turkey, 259 km of Georgia, is 503 km of which passes through Azerbaijan. The drawing of the project on the map is as follows. The Kars-Tbilisi-Baku Railway Project is actually a result of the ideas of connecting Europe and Asia by rail and reviving the historical silk road. Although there are different connection possibilities via Armenia this project (Kars-Gyumri-Ayrum-Marneuli-Tbilisi Kars-Gyumri-Yerevan-Nakhchivan-Meghri for-like Baku), Turkey's closure of the border crossings with Armenia after the war that took place between Azerbaijan and Armenia As a result, this country has become inaccessible to Central Asia, Russia, Ukraine, Georgia and China via rail. Ongoing issues results in the absence of diplomatic relations between the two countries and Turkey's desire to reach the Central Asian state has led to the emergence of the Kars-Baku railway project could be called -Tiflis-. When the Kars-Tbilisi-Baku Railway Project is implemented, it will be possible to carry uninterrupted freight from Europe to China by rail. Thus, it is planned to shift all of the freight transportation between Europe and Central Asia to the railway. When the Kars-Tbilisi-Baku Railway is put into service, it is aimed to carry 3 million tons of freight annually in the medium term, and by 2034, it is aimed to carry 16 million 500 thousand tons of cargo and 3 million passengers. It is clearly understood from the figures that the realization of the line will bring a great vitality to this region both in terms of employment and trade. After the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan and Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum Projects, this project, which is the third largest project realized by all three countries, will further reinforce the historical friendship of the three countries and bring peace and prosperity to the people of the region.
With the realization of the Kars-Tbilisi-Baku Railway Project and the completion of the Bosphorus Tube Crossing (Marmaray Project), which is under construction, as well as the construction of other railway projects that support these projects; From Asia to Europe, a significant portion of the load that can be transported in large volumes from Europe to Asia will remain in Turkey, so that will be able to obtain billions of dollars in revenue in the long term transport Turkey. With this project, it is aimed to revive the historical Silk Road by providing uninterrupted railway connection between Georgia, Azerbaijan and the Central Asian Turkic Republics and thus to develop economic and cultural cooperation between countries. He used his words.
Atatürk University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Science Faculty Member Prof. Dr. Kerem Karabulut gave the following information about the capacity that will arise when the line is put into operation: “When the line is put into operation; It will have a capacity of 1,5 million passengers and 6,5 million tons of cargo. At the end of 2034; 3 million passengers and 17 million tons of cargo carrying capacity will be reached. Some information about the infrastructure found on the line are as follows: Total Tunnel Length: 18 km. Total length of bored tunnel: 6,75 km. Total cut and cover tunnel length: 11,27 km. (18 pieces) (10,89 km. Has been completed) Total length of the viaduct: 550 m. (2). Total underpasses-culverts: 96, the following evaluations can be made for this important project, which is aimed to be completed and operated in the first quarter of 2017.
Kars-Tbilisi-Baku railway will provide the region and for Turkey; These links will internationalize Turkey and the region. It will improve regional trade. There will be low cost and safe transportation. It will bring significant contributions to tourism. Turkey will support the leadership path. It will make serious contributions to the reduction of migration and poverty in the region. Food, Textile and Construction (especially cement) will provide opportunities for the region, which has been in the vicious circle of Poverty for years, to escape from this circle. It will be an alternative to connecting Central Asia and the Caucasus to Europe via Russia. TRACECA (Transport Corridor Europa Caucasus Asia - Europe-Caucasus-Asia Transport Corridor) initiated by Europe in this regard can be considered as an alternative to Russia and for the wealth in the region. The completion of the submarine passage in Istanbul reveals that this project has an importance that can connect Europe to china. Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey by providing socio-economic rapprochement with Armenia will force a solution. With the implementation of the Kars-Iğdır-Nakhichevan railway, Armenia will be surrounded by rail again after energy pipelines. In addition, Nakhichevan will be connected to Azerbaijan and Europe via Kars. Considering that the developed countries are very advanced in the whole of the railway network can be said that one of the triggers for the development of this project, Turkey and countries in the region. The only negative aspect of the project that should be considered in the long term; These are the problems that can be experienced depending on the possibility of deterioration of relations with Russia. However, with current data, it can be said that this is a very weak possibility. "