What We Don't Know About Trains: What is Ballast?

rail ballast
rail ballast

What is a ballast? : Hard and solid stones with a sharp corner and sharp edges, 30-60 mm in size, with a certain layer thickness depending on the type of sleeper it carries and the load on it, are called ballast. Ballast can be made from granite, cyanite, basalt, diabase, diolite, hard limestone. However, the most ideal ballast stone is obtained from granite and basalt.

ballast
ballast

Answers to Questions We Don't Know Railway

Steel sleepers are not preferred due to their high cost and being resistant to climatic conditions. However, steel sleepers use suitable countries for their conditions. Having a mass of only 68 kg allows them to be placed easily. However, they cannot fully interact with the ballast layer.

Steel Traverse Positive Aspects;

  • Their lifespan is 45-50 years, approximately twice the creosote wooden sleepers.
  • It is easier and better stacked in shape and size.
  • Frames are lighter and easier to carry.
  • It is much easier and perfect to connect and disassemble rails to iron sleepers, it does not slack like in wooden sleepers.
  • Also, it does not require anti-fireplace material.
  • It is resistant to burning.
  • It is resistant to dressing because its ends are with nails.
  • It protects well.

Negative Aspects of Steel Crossmember;

  • Its light weight is not good in terms of superstructure stability.
  • Iron sleeper lines deteriorate faster than wooden sleepers.
  • It is not suitable for high speed and heavy load carrying.
  • Wooden sleepers are more elastic, stable and comfortable.
  • Iron sleepers make noise in the passage of trains, especially if the connections are not tightened well.
  • Since iron sleepers pass electrical current, it is difficult to isolate one rail array from another. Therefore, line circuits using rails are not used in electrical signs and automatic blocks.
  • Iron sleepers rutubethey do not rust.
  • Maintenance is difficult and costly.
  • It gives a noisy journey.

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  • Abrasion resistance, hence hardness feature.
  • Elasticity Fracture and crush resistance,
  • Being suitable for the mounting of rails,
  • Resistance to external influences,
  • It is not too light in terms of stability of the superstructure,
  • not being too heavy for two workers to carry,
  • The cost is appropriate,
  • Reduces noise and maturity,
  • It is suitable for isolation,
  • Temperature and spirittubedurability,
  • Fasteners should be easily mounted, carrying, stacking, laying, and disassembling,
  • It must be sufficiently resistant against abrasion, breakage and crushing,
  • It must be of sufficient width and length,
  • Traverse material should not transmit electric current,
  • It must have the necessary friction to ensure friction between the crossbar and the ballast,
  • It must be resistant to the harmful effects of water, moisture, acid rains, grass, tree roots and microorganisms,

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In line with the freight transfer model on railways; The jamb, which transmits the forces transferred by the rail to a wider surface to the ballast layer, determines and protects the openness of the road and keeps the road on the axis of the road against side effects, is called traverse at regular intervals in the direction of the rails. The first type of sleepers used in railways are wooden sleepers. This type of sleeper in nature is used especially in railway trusses. The positive and negative features of the preferred wooden sleeper due to its flexibility and insulation are as follows:

Features of Wooden Traverse

Positive Aspects

  • Due to the flexibility in the natural structure of the wood, it prevents the impact effect as it flexes the forces coming from the rail and it does not damage the ballast since its friction is also low.
  • Maintenance costs are low.
  • It is flexible.
  • It is heavy enough not to disturb road stabilization and light enough to be transported.
  • It provides a noiseless journey.
  • It is insulating.

Negative Aspects

  • RutubeIt is very affected by t.
  • It is likely to burn.
  • It is resistant to dressing, the road usually slides out on the curves.
  • It is difficult to maintain blister.
  • Their lifespan is short.

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According to the railway load transfer model, the rails are transferred to the ballast layer by spreading the forces acting on it on a wider surface, passing the clearance of the path and keeping the path in the axis against the side effects.


Railway sleepers used in railway systems, axle weight, speed, technological developments in towing and towing vehicles and so on. the progress in the elements and the materials used in the production of traverse were in parallel with the problems of adaptation to these advances and the cost considerations.

Traverses used in rail systems are divided into four:

  1. Wooden sleepers,
  2. Iron sleepers,
  3. Reinforced concrete sleepers,
  4. Plastic sleepers.

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Building design; The dimensions of the structures on the bridge, tunnel and line.

  • Construction Gauge 4000 - 4800 mm
  • High Peron 1220 mm
  • Center Perforation 760 mm
  • Low Peron 380 mm

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The load gauge is the highest in terms of the width and height that can be accepted according to the base of the freight wagons and the base for the safe movement of the cargo to be carried on the lines. Load Gauge is 3150 - 4650 mm. For details Click here...




The gap left on both sides and above the railway is called gauge so that the vehicles that pull and pull on the railway can pass freely. These are the dimensions created to determine the largest possible building frame of both towing and towing vehicles, as well as the location of obstacles and especially art structures (bridge, culvert, splitting, slope, spelling) according to the road. and the measurement is taken by considering the extreme points vertically. The measurements taken are measured by a fixed gauge facility with tunnel and bridge gauge measurements. If the pulled and pulled vehicle and the horizontally and vertically extreme points of the item in the pulled vehicle exceed the gauge of the gauges, there is an overflow flood. For details Click here...




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