What is a high-speed train: Just 63 years ago, in l961, I am a student at the boarding Railway Vocational High School in Ankara. In the professional "Railway" magazine, there are illustrated news about the high-speed trains in Japan:
X From Tokyo to 500 km. the fast trains were always running this distance in two hours. Dahi In our country, such a fast train technology could not be imagined. At that time, steam trains were working in important railways in our country. The highest speed they can do is 90 km per hour. was. There were motorized trains, trains operating with diesel locomotives were in the forefront of our country's technology. Steam trains continued to exist in our country until the middle of 1980s. After this stage, trains taken by locomotive trains and trains drawn by electric locomotives among the important centers such as Ankara - Istanbul continued to dominate as the most advanced technology for our country. The average speed of express trains from passenger trains is 50 km per hour. As of the beginning of the 2000'li years.
In the railway literature, trains are divided into three groups:
- Passenger trains
- Cargo trains
- Business trains
The last 8-10 is divided into three categories in terms of speed in the modern railway literature.
- REGIONAL TRAIN for trains up to 160 km / h.
- 160 on the hour - 250 km. FAST TRAIN on trains
- The speed on the hour is 250 km. and more trains are called HIGH SPEED TRAIN [YHT].
The technical specifications that I will describe hereafter relate to the standards of High Speed Train technology.
The political power that changed in the first years of the new millennium recalled the importance of Railway transportation, which it neglected and pushed aside in the country's economy for 50 - 60 years. Thus, he quickly initiated the work of renovating neglected maintenance and very worn parts of conventional lines, besides, he pressed the button to bring the high-speed train technology to our country. As it is known, construction started between Ankara and Eskişehir, that is, in the most suitable environment of our country as land condition. It was commissioned in 5, 2007 years later. Then the Ankara - Konya line was built and put into service. As it is known now, Eskişehir - Istanbul High Speed Train Construction, which has been under construction for 5 years, has been completed. Test drives continue. It will be put into service soon.
Our people loved High Speed Train technology, which is a great competitor and alternative to airline transportation.
High Speed technology, as predicted, is a very advanced technology. The road sub and superstructure is a different technology with the height of the standards of towing and towing vehicles to follow on this road. The slightest negligence in the maintenance and control of the road and vehicles - due to high speed - can lead to large and irreparable accidents and losses. But the possibility of possible negligence and error as a result of daily and strict control, maintenance and intervention within the system can be largely prevented. The staff in charge should take care in their selection. With a very good training and supervision, a safe working environment can be provided. Thankfully, there has not been a major fault and accident in business. The system sat down. In addition, our country has brought a systematic and meticulous work environment to our country and made it a tradition.
As it is known, as in every construction, infrastructure and superstructure are in question. Within the scope of the infrastructure, constructions such as the splitting [crossing elevations] dolma [crossing the pits] bridge [overcoming the water barrier] viaduct [overcoming large and long pits] tunnel [overcoming the mountains and hills] underpass and overpass bridges are included. The dynamic high speed vehicles that will pass over these constructions must have the quality standard to carry the dynamic load. This is very costly compared to infrastructure construction in conventional lines. Its standards have been determined by international agreements.
The superstructure consists of laying concrete sleepers with special standards on the ve ballast lar, which consists of pieces of crushed stones of certain quality and standards laid out on the platform, and a double rail which is manufactured on certain standards and quality. High-speed train rails are larger in weight and weight than conventional lines.
In addition, high speed train arrays are also included in the superstructure. As you can guess, it is necessary to have standard and quality, such as the powerful engine and the vehicle axles are not burning at high speed.
. Superstructure geometry ”is very important in YHT road technology. Let us briefly define the relevant basic terms to understand this issue:
When we take the path in the vertical direction; If there is no difference between the elevation of the elevation of the road, the elevation difference between the two points - the straight path - is called the inclined or inclined path - if there is a difference between the two points of the road. In the YHT standard, the road must be at a very low gradient, very close to zero slope, and very close to the slope. Because inclined roads, ie ramps, speed limiting formation.
In the horizontal direction, there are two different types of paths - the right path - and - the curved path. The radius of curved paths is the arc of a given circle. And the curved paths in road technology - kurp - is called. The larger the radius of the curves, the more fast the vehicles on it will be possible. Limits the speed as the radius decreases. For example, if the curvature of a conventional line is 300 meter, the maximum speed of the vehicles is 70 km / h. When this speed is exceeded, the vehicles can roll and tip over the center of the winding center. Because, as a rule of physics, the rotating objects are pushed out of the center of the circle with the effect of centrifugal force - and as a result they are thrown away. For this reason, the YHT standard must never be at all or should be in very large radii such as 3500 - 5000 meters, which are close to the X right way UM.
These superstructure geometry standards, ie zero and zero inclined roads, very large radius curves, also affect the infrastructure standards and YHT road construction of large, high, long and wide bridges, tunnels, viaducts have to be built. As a result, the cost of road construction is very high. It is very difficult to realize these standards in very rough terrain.