Marmaray Science and Technology Magazine Cover

On the Cover of Marmaray Science and Technical Magazine: TÜBİTAK Science and Technical Magazine brought the Marmaray Project, which unites Asia and Europe under the sea, to the cover of its November issue.
TÜBİTAK Science and Technology Magazine carried the Marmaray Project, which unites Asia and the European continent from the bottom of the sea, to the cover of November.
Republican 90. opened in anniversary 'Marmaray Project', published by the cap Science and Technology Magazine, construction techniques used in the project, operating excavations at Yenikapı of discharge channel projects in the Ottoman Empire and 35 thousand historical monuments. According to the information contained in the magazine, 13,6 different tunnels under the sea were used in the construction of 3 different methods. The 2,4 kilometers of Marmaray are made up of open-close tunnels, the 9,8 kms are from the drilling tunnels and the 1,4 kilometers are immersed tube tunnels. The parts under the Bosphorus were built as an immersed tube tunnel. The concrete thickness of the submerged tube tunnels was 90 cm at the base, 100 cm at the side walls and 80 cm at the ceiling. The outer sections of the tunnels were sealed with rubber and steel. Various devices were installed in the tunnels in order to monitor the corrosion effects during use. In Marmaray, which was built according to national and international standards, measures were taken against possible major earthquakes and major disasters. Ground strengthening studies were performed in the regions where the line was likely to be liquefaction during a possible earthquake. Seismic joints were made to prevent damage to the structure. The tunnels, which were designed not to be demolished even in the even larger earthquake, were constructed with the ductility that the passengers could safely come out of. In the project where necessary measures were taken against the tsunami, the entrances of the stations close to the shore were designed not to enter water.
MARMARAY IS THE DREAM PROJECT OF OTTOMAN
The Scientific and Technical Journal of Marmaray, which mentions the ancestor of the Ottoman projects, is 2. During the reign of Abdülhamit, the Tunnel of the Submarine Steel prepared by the French and the Sea Tunnel presented by the Americans were included.
In the 16th century, the Ottoman Empire attempted 3 canal projects outside of Istanbul. The first of these is the Suez Canal Project in 1568. The project, which was prepared to open up from the Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean, was completed by the British in 1869. In 1569, the Ottomans, who prepared the Don-Volga Canal Project, wanted to combine the Don that flows into the Black Sea with the Volga River flowing into the Caspian Sea. One third of the canal dug ended before it could be completed. The Soviet Union opened the Don-Volga Canal in 1952.
The other channel project of the Ottoman Empire is Sakarya River-Sapanca Lake-İzmit Bay Project. According to the project prepared in 1591, there will be a chain of channels from Sakarya River to Sapanca Lake and from there to Izmit Bay. He started to work in the stage of digging shelf.
The magazine also contains information on the archaeological excavations at Yenikapı uncovered within the scope of the Marmaray Project. 35 thousand works have been documented and the history of Istanbul rewritten excavations started with the Marmaray Project. In the last article about Marmaray, animal skeletons uncovered in the excavations in Yenikapı are included.

Source : I www.haberler.co

Armin

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