Marmaray Project was not Sultan Abdulmecid's dream but Abdulhamid II's dream

The Marmaray Project was the dream of the Second Abdülhamid, not the Sultan Abdülmecid: Marmaray, which will be opened today, was first brought to the agenda 122 years ago and two different projects were presented to the Second Abdülhamid on different dates.
Two issues of Istanbul have not been solved for centuries. The first is transportation, and the second is drinking water. Today, many projects that have been discussed to solve the issue of urban transportation have been brought up in the history. The transportation of Istanbul has been an issue that excites not only us, but even foreign architects. Like Leonardo Vinci and Mikelanj during the Second Bayazid Rönesans famous artists of the period designed the Golden Horn and the Bosphorus bridges.
19. In the first half of the 20th century, a rapid and easy alternative to transportation was introduced. Tramways, trains and subway transport have become very easy in many countries. Istanbul met the railway system very early. The tram was put into service at 1871. In 1875, “Tünel”, the second subway of the world, opened in Istanbul. In the following years, the İstanbul-Edirne and Haydarpaşa-İzmit railway lines started to operate.
After Leonardo Vinci's Bosphorus Bridge project, a new project for the Bosphorus crossing was prepared by Euqene Henri Gavand at 1873. Gavand had proposed a subway project that would cross the Bosphorus Bridge between Sarayburnu and Üsküdar. The date of this project is shown in the 1876 and the project is also in the tube passage, but this is not true.
In 1891, a tube passage project between Sarayburnu and Üsküdar came up. The French engineer Simon Preault presented the geç Submarine Steel Tunnel İkinci project that was imaginable at the time to cross the Bosphorus to Abdulhamid II. But this project remained.
The second project for the Bosphorus crossing was also presented to Abdulhamid II. Between Üsküdar-Salacak and Yenikapı-Sarayburnu, three American engineers, Frederic Strom, Frank Lindman and John Hilliker, took action at 1902 to build a tube passageway. This tube called ti Tünel-i Bahrî tekn or ”Cisr-i Enbubî fi'l-bahr / Subaküs Viadikt i was to be constructed with steel technology. The tube walkway would connect the two shores on the 16 large column fixed to the sea. Passengers and goods would be transported by a three-wagon train to operate at the tube gate. After going to Salacak, it would be possible to reach Haydarpaşa by rail. However, due to the financial means of the period and the fact that the city population was not so extreme at that time, this project remained on paper like the other.
It is said that Marmaray first came to the agenda during the reign of Sultan Abdülmecid. However, this is due to the fact that Preault's tube passage project was not found in the Taksim Municipal Library and the date it was first published in 1990 by Cahit Kayra.
In the unplanned project, it is estimated that the tube passage belongs to 1860 with the drawing of the trains inside the tube passage. As a result, the tube walkway was constructed as Sultan Abdülmecid or Sultan Abdulhamid period. The documents on this subject were also not found in time because they were probably taken from the Ottoman Archive and taken to Ankara to be used in a project.
However, in the later studies, Preault's project and its specifications were found in the Republican Archives of the Prime Ministry. 24 appeared in the news in June at 1995. Tube passage projects were published by Ömer Faruk Yılmaz together with his documents and drawings in the belge One Century First in the Bosphorus at the Bosphorus Tube Project “, in the Yedikı Magazine at 2009.
The document and project drawings used in this publication and later in the book published by Turan Sahin, clearly revealed that the history of Preault's tube passage project is 3 August 1891. The tube passage project has nothing to do with Sultan Abdülmecid.
A unique work on Turkish book history
There are scholars who are not well known by the public, but who have embraced great services to the well-known Turkish culture. One of them, Professor. Dr. Ismail Erünsal. Because of his services to Turkish literature and librarianship, his name has already passed to history with golden letters.
Erünsal teacher, often on the field of non-pencil play in the field for many years by doing important works. The last of these is a very important new work in our cultural history called Sah Sahaflık and Sahaflar in the Ottomans tarih.
There is not much research made from original sources on the history of books and books. Sahaflik, in particular, has not been handled so far based on main sources. Prof. Dr. İsmail Erünsal made archival and library research and scanning hundreds of thousands of documents and revealed the 400 year of Ottoman sahaflik with this book.
This work called ü Sahaflik and Sahaf-s in the Ottomans' gives important information about the history, books, book trade, book trade and reading culture. One of the most interesting parts of the book is the sale of books to foreigners and bans on this subject. European travelers and ambassadors took thousands of Turkish and foreign languages ​​from Ottoman lands to the countries of writing.
When these activities of the Europeans reached disturbing dimensions, the famous Sadrazam Şehid Ali Paşa, who was famous for his books, was the author of 18. In the beginning of the century banned the sale of books. However, despite this ban, the flow of books to the West did not stop. The interesting thing is that some of the books were even received from the palace through illegitimate means.
İsmail Erünsal, who prepared this unique work which brings out the unnamed karamans and activities of Turkish book history, offers our gratitude to my teacher and I recommend this important work to his enthusiasts.
World's first underwater tunnel
The world's first underwater tunnel was built by the UK Engineer Sir Marc Isambard Brunel under the River Thames. In 1843, the tunnel tunnel used pedestrians. In 1869, the train from the Thames Tunnel began. After this tunnel, many underwater tunnels were built in England, especially Tower Subway in London.
An unknown tube passage attempt
At the time when the Committee of Union and Progress came under the control of the administration, a tube passage was also launched at the beginning of 1918. Professor Dr. According to a document found by Vahdettin Engin, at the end of the First World War, the Ottoman Council of Ministers had discussed an offer to cross the Bosphorus with a tunnel or bridge.

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