When Was the TCDD Established

The Republic of Turkey State Railways TCDD, or simply, regulating the railway transport in the Republic of Turkey is operating and controlling the government.

During the Ottoman Empire period, the railways, which were operated by the capital owners with the build-operate model, started to be nationalized with the Law No. 24 enacted on May 1924, 506 and was structured under the name of Anadolu - Baghdad Railways Directorate. Later, it was named the State Railways and Ports Administration General with the Law No. 31 of 1927 May 1042, which was enacted in order to ensure that the construction and operation of the railways were carried out together and to provide wider working opportunities.

supplementary budget until 1953 in the form of a state administration institutions managed, July 29, 1953 Law No. 6186 "Republic of Turkey State Railways (TCDD)" under the name State Enterprise was transformed into the public. It acquired the identity of "Public Economic Organization" with the last decree numbered 233.

Ottoman period (1856 - 1922)

The entrance of railway transportation, which started in England in 1825 for the first time in the world, to the Ottoman Empire, whose lands spread over 3 continents, would be much earlier than many other big countries.

The railroad adventure in the Ottoman lands first started with the concession of the 211 km Cairo-Alexandria line. In 1866, the length of the railway line on the Ottoman lands was 519 km. 1/4 of this line, that is 130 km, is on Anatolian soil, the remaining 389 km is between Constanta-Danube and Varna-Ruse.

The history of the railway in Anatolia begins on September 22, 1856, when a British company (ORC) hit the first dig for the 130 km Izmir (Alsancak) -Aydın Railway, which was the first railway line. The concession was transferred to the "Ottoman Railway from Izmir to Aydin" company in 1857, during the time of Izmir Governor Mustafa Pasha. Thus, this 130 km line, which was the first railway line in Anatolian lands, was completed with a work that took 10 years in 1866 during the reign of Sultan Abdülaziz.

Another British company (SCR and SCP), which was later granted concession, completed the 98 km part of the Izmir (Basmane) -Kasaba (Turgutlu) Railway (Izmir-Turgutlu-Afyon and Izmir-Manisa-Bandırma lines) in 1865.

In time, separate spheres of influence of the British, French and Germans, who were given railroad concessions in the Ottoman Empire, emerged. In France, Northern Greece, Western and Southern Anatolia and Syria; In England, Romania, Western Anatolia, Iraq and the Persian Gulf; It has created spheres of influence in Germany, Thrace, Central Anatolia, and Mesopotamia.

The Ottoman Government is also considering to connect Haydarpaşa to Baghdad, so the line that will connect India with Europe will be passed through Istanbul. In 1871, the construction of the Haydarpaşa-İzmit line was started by the state with a will from the palace and the 91 km line was completed in 1873. With another decree dated October 8, 1888, the construction and operation concession of the İzmit-Ankara part of this line was given to the Anatolian Osmanlı Şimendifer Kumpanyası. With a concession received on February 15, 1893, the same company built and opened Eskişehir-Konya, Alayunt-Kütahya parts with German capital. The construction, which started from Eskişehir to Konya on 31 August 1893, arrived in Konya on 29 July 1896.

Istanbul-Edirne and Kırklareli-Alpullu sections of 1896 km of eastern railways, which were given to Baron Hirsch in 2000, were completed and put into operation in 336, and Istanbul was connected to European railways.

1876 1909 33 years until the Ottoman Sultan Sultan II. Abdülhamid expresses the following in his memoirs;
“I accelerated the construction of Anatolian Railways with all my strength. The purpose of this road is to connect Mesopotamia and Baghdad to Anatolia and reach the Persian Gulf. This was achieved thanks to German assistance. Grains that used to rot in the fields now find good plowing, our mines are supplied to the world market. A good future has been prepared for Anatolia. The competition between the great powers for the construction of railways within our empire is very strange and suspicious. Although the great states do not want to admit it, the importance of these railways is not only economic but also political.

Lines for operation in Ottoman period

Anadolu Railways (CFOA), 1023 km normal line. It started to operate between Istanbul and Adapazarı under the name of Ottoman Anatolian Railways in 1871, and in 1888, it was transferred to Société du Chemin de fer Ottoman d'Anatolie company in return for the extension of the line to Eskişehir, Konya and Ankara. In 1927, the new Turkish government was merged with the Anadolu-Baghdad Railway (CFAB) company, dissolved and connected to TCDD. It consists of two lines: Istanbul-İzmit-Bilecik-Eskişehir-Ankara and Eskişehir-Afyonkarahisar-Konya lines.

Baghdad Railway (CFIO), 1600 km normal line. Founded in 1904, Adana-based Ottoman-German capital Chemin de Fer Impérial Ottoman was operated by the Baghdad company until 1923. The line that caused controversy among the French, British and Germans is among the causes of World War I. In 1927, the new Turkish government was merged with the Anadolu-Baghdad Railway (CFAB) company, dissolved and connected to TCDD. It consists of the Konya-Adana-Aleppo-Baghdad-Basra line.

İzmir (Alsancak) -Aydın Railway and Branches (ORC), 610 km normal line. It was operated by the Ottoman Railway Company, which was founded in 1856, until it was acquired by TCDD in 1935. This company was the first railway company established in the Ottoman Empire and although TCDD was established in 1927, it accepts the date of establishment of this company as its own establishment date.

Izmir (Basmane) -Kasaba (Turgutlu) Railway and Extensions (SCP), 695 km normal line. From 1863 to 1893, Smyrne Cassaba & Prolongements was operated by the Société Ottomane du Chemin de fer de Smyrne-Cassaba et Prolongements company from 1893 until it was acquired by TCDD in 1934.

Istanbul-Vienna Railways (CO), 2383 km normal line. Founded in 1869, the Chemins de fer Orientaux company operated the Ottoman railways in Rumelia until 1937. It was possible to reach Paris by rail with the line known as the Orient Express. This line ran from Istanbul to Ottoman cities such as Edirne, Filibe, Nis, Thessaloniki, Belgrade and Sarajevo and extended to Vienna.

Hicaz Railway, 1320 km normal line. The line, which started with the Ottoman capital in 1900, was completed and opened in 1908 between Damascus and Medina. As a result of the frequent destruction of the railway by local Arab tribes in World War I, it could be operated until 1920. It consisted of two lines: Damascus-Busra-Amman-Ma'an-Aqaba-Tabuk-Hijr-Medina and Busra-Jerusalem lines.

Damascus - Hama and its Extension, 498 km narrow and normal line.
Jerusalem - Jaffa, 86 km normal line.
Mudanya-Bursa Railway (CFMB), 42 km narrow gauge. The line, which was opened by the Ottoman Empire in 1871, was started to be operated by the French company Chemin de Fer Moudania Brousse in 1874. TCDD bought the line in 1932, but closed this line in 1948 due to the line being unconnected with the main lines and unprofitable.
Ankara - Yahsihan, 80 km narrow track.
Adana-Feke, 122 km narrow line.

Mersin-Tarsus-Adana Railway (MTA), 67 km double normal line. It was opened in 1883 by the Mersin-Tarsus-Adana Railway (MTA) company, which was founded in 1886 with Turkish-English and French joint capital. It was acquired by the German Deutsche Bank in 1906 and started to be operated by Chemins du Fer Impérial Ottomans de Bagdad (CFIO). In 1929, it was bought and nationalized by the Anatolian-Baghdad Railway Company, a partnership of the new Turkish government.

The total length of the railways built and opened in the Ottoman period is 8.619 km. [8] However, 4559 km of these lines remained within the territory of the newly established Republic. Among these lines, 2.282 km of normal width and 70 km of narrow line belonged to foreign capital companies, while the line of 2.207 km of normal width belonged to State-owned companies.
Turkish War of Independence period (1919 - 1923)

With its successes in transporting soldiers, weapons and supplies to the front in the War of Independence, and in the transportation of veterans from the fronts back, that is, in the logistics of the war, railways became a part of the War of Independence. kazanplayed an important role in the During this period, Behiç Erkin, General Director of the General Directorate of Anatolian - Baghdad Railways, was honored with both the Grand National Assembly of Turkey Commendation and the Medal of Independence for his success in the flawless operation of the railways.

Republican Period

1923-1940 period

During this period, railways were nationalized and new lines were established. On May 24, 1924, Anadolu-Baghdad Railways Directorate General was established for the nationalization of railways. On May 31, 1927, the General Directorate of State Railways Ports was established. Thus, the construction and operation of the railways started to be carried out together. The railway line, which was 1923 km in Anatolia as of 4559, reached 1940 km with the works carried out until 8637.

1932 and 1936 prepared in 1. and 2. In the Five Year Industrialization Plans, priority was given to basic industries such as iron and steel, coal and machinery. Railway investments were important in order to transport such mass cargoes in the cheapest and safest way. In these plans, railways are intended to achieve the following objectives:

To reach potential production centers and natural resources.

The railroad reaching Ergani is called copper, the iron reaching the Ereğli coal basin, the Adana and Çetinkaya lines are called cotton and iron lines.

Establishing relationships between production and consumption centers, ie ports and post-regions.

The ports that reach the railway with Kalın-Samsun, Irmak-Zonguldak lines have been increased from 6 to 8. With the Samsun and Zonguldak lines, the sea connection of Central and Eastern Anatolia has been reinforced.

Ensuring the spread of economic development at the country level and reaching especially the less developed regions.

Kayseri in 1927, Sivas in 1930, Malatya in 1931, Niğde in 1933, Elazığ in 1934, Diyarbakır in 1935 and Erzurum in 1939 were connected to the railway network.

1940-1960 period

The years 1940-1960 are a "stagnation period" in terms of railways. Indeed, despite the economic famine and impossibilities in İnönü period, the construction of the railway II. It was continued until the World War. It slowed down after 1940 due to the war. 1923 km of the 1960 km of railroad built between 3.578-3.208 are those completed until 1940. During this period, the Ministry of Transport institutions connecting to July 22, 1953 in the name of "Republic of Turkey State Railways (TCDD)" got its name. Its status was turned into an Economic State Enterprise. Sirkeci, the first electric line in 1955Halkalı the suburban line was opened.

1960-2000 period

After the War of Independence, despite all the impossibilities, an average of 240 km of railroads were built per year, but only 1960 km of railroads could be built per year, despite the technology and financial opportunities developed after 39. The main reason why the railways were put into the background at these times was the change in the transportation policy of the state. [9] Former Prime Minister and President Turgut Özal said "an outdated transportation method" and "Railway is the choice of communist countries, because transportation is for central control purposes".

As a result, between 1960 and 1997, the length of the railroad increased by 11%. Investment shares in transportation sectors are; In the 1960s, the share of the highway was 50% and the railroad 30%, while the share of the railroad has remained below 1985% since 10. Road transport share in Turkey 96%, while rail passenger transport share of 2%. The share of railways in passenger transportation decreased by 38% in these years due to the fact that the existing infrastructure and operating conditions were not improved and new corridors were not opened.

2000 and post-period

In 2002 has carried out approximately 14 million tons cargo transportation. Freight transport includes not only goods transported domestically but also goods coming from abroad and going to other countries.

When it looks at Turkey road-rail freight transport shares of the transport system, road freight transport rate of 94%, while railway freight transport share is 4%.

TCDD is in a continuous work for both renewing existing lines and adding new lines. In particular, it replaces the existing old rail technology and switches to a new and more up-to-date system of high-speed trains.

TCDD started to lay high speed train lines in 2003. The first line, the Ankara-Istanbul line, is 533 kilometers. The Ankara-Eskişehir part of the line consists of 245 km and the journey time is 65 minutes. Travel time between Istanbul (Pendik) and Ankara is 4 hours and 5 minutes. Trial flights started on April 23, 2007 and commercial flights on March 13, 2009.

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